Medical College of Wisconsin
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Kirk A. Ludwig MD

Kirk A. Ludwig MD

Chief, Professor

Institution: Medical College of Wisconsin
Department: Surgery
Division: Colorectal Surgery
Program: Colorectal Surgery

Member of the MCW Cancer Center


Publications

  • Shifting concepts in rectal cancer management: a review of contemporary primary rectal cancer treatment strategies. (Kosinski L, Habr-Gama A, Ludwig K, Perez R) CA Cancer J Clin 2012 May-Jun;62(3):173-202 PMID 22488575
  • Affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses of GI tract via up-regulating hypothalamic oxytocin expression. (Babygirija R, Cerjak D, Yoshimoto S, Gribovskaja-Rupp I, Bülbül M, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Auton Neurosci 2012 Jul 2;169(1):28-33 PMID 22464293
  • Up-regulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator after anal stenosis in rats. (Ramprasad J, Sood M, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) J Pediatr Surg 2012 Mar;47(3):556-64 PMID 22424353
  • Ex vivo evaluation of preoperatively treated rectal cancer specimens of patients undergoing radical resection. (de la Fuente SG, Ludwig KA, Tyler DS, Mantyh CR) Ann Surg Oncol 2012 Jun;19(6):1954-8 PMID 22350598
  • Upregulation of mucosal 5-HT3 receptors is involved in restoration of colonic transit after pelvic nerve transection. (Gribovskaja-Rupp I, Takahashi T, Ridolfi T, Kosinski L, Ludwig K) Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012 May;24(5):472-8, e218 PMID 22304456
  • Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats. (Yoshimoto S, Babygirija R, Dobner A, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Dig Dis Sci 2012 May;57(5):1213-21 PMID 22258717
  • Central and peripheral release of oxytocin following chronic homotypic stress in rats. (Babygirija R, Bülbül M, Yoshimoto S, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Auton Neurosci 2012 Apr 3;167(1-2):56-60 PMID 22245139
  • Impaired adaptation of gastrointestinal motility following chronic stress in maternally separated rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Cerjak D, Yoshimoto S, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2012 Apr;302(7):G702-11 PMID 22241856
  • Splenic injury during colon surgery: a matter of technique? (Kastenmeier A, Ludwig KA) Arch Surg 2012 Apr;147(4):329-30 PMID 22184137
  • Hypothalamic circuit regulating colonic transit following chronic stress in rats. (Yoshimoto S, Cerjak D, Babygirija R, Bulbul M, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Stress 2012 Mar;15(2):227-36 PMID 21936687
  • How low is low? Evolving approaches to sphincter-sparing resection techniques. (Ludwig K, Kosinski L) Semin Radiat Oncol 2011 Jul;21(3):185-95 PMID 21645863
  • Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats. (Ridolfi TJ, Tong WD, Kosinski L, Takahashi T, Ludwig KA) Scand J Gastroenterol 2011 Jun;46(6):678-83 PMID 21561284
  • Sustained acceleration of colonic transit following chronic homotypic stress in oxytocin knockout mice. (Babygirija R, Bülbül M, Cerjak D, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Neurosci Lett 2011 May 9;495(1):77-81 PMID 21439349
  • The challenge in treating the elderly colorectal cancer patient. (Ludwig KA) Ann Surg Oncol 2011 Jun;18(6):1520-1 PMID 21431985
  • Hypothalamic oxytocin attenuates CRF expression via GABA(A) receptors in rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Cerjak D, Yoshimoto S, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Brain Res 2011 Apr 28;1387:39-45 PMID 21382355
  • Food intake and interdigestive gastrointestinal motility in ghrelin receptor mutant rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Xu H, Lazar J, Takahashi T) J Gastroenterol 2011 Apr;46(4):469-78 PMID 21258824
  • Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice. (Babygirija R, Zheng J, Bülbül M, Cerjak D, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) J Neuroendocrinol 2010 Nov;22(11):1181-6 PMID 20969650
  • International preoperative rectal cancer management: staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and impact of multidisciplinary teams. (Augestad KM, Lindsetmo RO, Stulberg J, Reynolds H, Senagore A, Champagne B, Heriot AG, Leblanc F, Delaney CP, International Rectal Cancer Study Group (IRCSG)) World J Surg 2010 Nov;34(11):2689-700 PMID 20703471
  • The role of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the adaptive mechanism of colonic transit following the parasympathetic denervation in rats. (Tong W, Kamiyama Y, Ridolfi TJ, Zietlow A, Zheng J, Kosinski L, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) J Surg Res 2011 Dec;171(2):510-6 PMID 20691988
  • Central orexin-A increases gastric motility in rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Peptides 2010 Nov;31(11):2118-22 PMID 20691742
  • Hypothalamic oxytocin mediates adaptation mechanism against chronic stress in rats. (Zheng J, Babygirija R, Bülbül M, Cerjak D, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2010 Oct;299(4):G946-53 PMID 20689056
  • Beneficial effects of social attachment to overcome daily stress. (Babygirija R, Zheng J, Bülbül M, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Brain Res 2010 Sep 17;1352:43-9 PMID 20643112
  • Central oxytocin attenuates augmented gastric postprandial motility induced by restraint stress in rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Neurosci Lett 2010 Aug 2;479(3):302-6 PMID 20639005
  • Association between plasma ghrelin and motilin levels during MMC cycle in conscious dogs. (Zietlow A, Nakajima H, Taniguchi H, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Regul Pept 2010 Sep 24;164(2-3):78-82 PMID 20609429
  • Central orexin-A changes the gastrointestinal motor pattern from interdigestive to postprandial in rats. (Bülbül M, Babygirija R, Zheng J, Ludwig KA, Takahashi T) Auton Neurosci 2010 Dec 8;158(1-2):24-30 PMID 20542473
  • Alvimopan for the management of postoperative ileus after bowel resection: characterization of clinical benefit by pooled responder analysis. (Ludwig K, Viscusi ER, Wolff BG, Delaney CP, Senagore A, Techner L) World J Surg 2010 Sep;34(9):2185-90 PMID 20526599
  • Effects of autonomic nerve stimulation on colorectal motility in rats. (Tong WD, Ridolfi TJ, Kosinski L, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010 Jun;22(6):688-93 PMID 20067587
  • Mechanism of interdigestive migrating motor complex in conscious dogs. (Nakajima H, Mochiki E, Zietlow A, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) J Gastroenterol 2010 May;45(5):506-14 PMID 20033824
  • Does every question deserve a randomized controlled trial? (Ludwig K, Ridolfi TJ) Arch Surg 2009 Dec;144(12):1132 PMID 20030032
  • Local management of rectal neoplasia. (Touzios J, Ludwig KA) Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2008 Nov;21(4):291-9 PMID 20011441
  • Central oxytocin is involved in restoring impaired gastric motility following chronic repeated stress in mice. (Babygirija R, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2010 Jan;298(1):R157-65 PMID 19889866
  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of rectal motility in rats. (Ridolfi TJ, Tong WD, Takahashi T, Kosinski L, Ludwig KA) J Gastrointest Surg 2009 Nov;13(11):2027-33; discussion 2033 PMID 19760300
  • Chronic restraint stress has no more stimulatory effects on colonic motility in rats. (Masere C, Nakade Y, Zheng J, Babygirija R, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Neurosci Lett 2009 Apr 10;453(3):147-50 PMID 19429023
  • Effects of repeated restraint stress on gastric motility in rats. (Zheng J, Dobner A, Babygirija R, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2009 May;296(5):R1358-65 PMID 19261914
  • Gastrointestinal tract recovery in patients undergoing bowel resection: results of a randomized trial of alvimopan and placebo with a standardized accelerated postoperative care pathway. (Ludwig K, Enker WE, Delaney CP, Wolff BG, Du W, Fort JG, Cherubini M, Cucinotta J, Techner L) Arch Surg 2008 Nov;143(11):1098-105 PMID 19015469
  • Effects of ghrelin on interdigestive contractions of the rat gastrointestinal tract. (Taniguchi H, Ariga H, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) World J Gastroenterol 2008 Nov 7;14(41):6299-302 PMID 19009642
  • Spinal abscess presenting as the initial symptom of Crohn's disease. (de la Fuente SG, Safford SD, Cantu E, Ludwig KA) Int J Colorectal Dis 2009 May;24(5):601-2 PMID 18931849
  • Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer reduces lymph node harvest in proctectomy specimens. (de la Fuente SG, Manson RJ, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR) J Gastrointest Surg 2009 Feb;13(2):269-74 PMID 18850250
  • Ghrelin regulates gastric phase III-like contractions in freely moving conscious mice. (Zheng J, Ariga H, Taniguchi H, Ludwig K, Takahashi T) Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009 Jan;21(1):78-84 PMID 18761630
  • Endogenous ghrelin and 5-HT regulate interdigestive gastrointestinal contractions in conscious rats. (Taniguchi H, Ariga H, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Mantyh C, Pappas TN, Takahashi T) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2008 Aug;295(2):G403-11 PMID 18566321
  • Surgical autonomic denervation results in altered colonic motility: an explanation for low anterior resection syndrome? (Lee WY, Takahashi T, Pappas T, Mantyh CR, Ludwig KA) Surgery 2008 Jun;143(6):778-83 PMID 18549894
  • Treatment of metronidazole-refractory Clostridium difficile enteritis with vancomycin. (Follmar KE, Condron SA, Turner II, Nathan JD, Ludwig KA) Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2008 Apr;9(2):195-200 PMID 18426352
  • Routine contrast imaging of low pelvic anastomosis prior to closure of defunctioning ileostomy: is it necessary? (Kalady MF, Mantyh CR, Petrofski J, Ludwig KA) J Gastrointest Surg 2008 Jul;12(7):1227-31 PMID 18368457
  • Standardized algorithms for management of anastomotic leaks and related abdominal and pelvic abscesses after colorectal surgery. (Phitayakorn R, Delaney CP, Reynolds HL, Champagne BJ, Heriot AG, Neary P, Senagore AJ, International Anastomotic Leak Study Group) World J Surg 2008 Jun;32(6):1147-56 PMID 18283511
  • Rectal cancer. (Engstrom PF, Arnoletti JP, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Cooper HS, Dilawari RA, Early DS, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Grem JL, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saltz L, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Venook AP, National Comprehensive Cancer Network) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2007 Oct;5(9):940-81 PMID 17977503
  • Colon cancer. (Engstrom PF, Arnoletti JP, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Cooper HS, Dilawari RA, Early DS, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Grem JL, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saltz L, Shibata D, Skibber JM, Venook AP, Fox Chase Cancer Center Partners) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2007 Oct;5(9):884-925 PMID 17977501
  • Simultaneous resections of colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases: a multi-institutional analysis. (Reddy SK, Pawlik TM, Zorzi D, Gleisner AL, Ribero D, Assumpcao L, Barbas AS, Abdalla EK, Choti MA, Vauthey JN, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR, Morse MA, Clary BM) Ann Surg Oncol 2007 Dec;14(12):3481-91 PMID 17805933
  • Sphincter-sparing resection for rectal cancer. (Ludwig KA) Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2007 Aug;20(3):203-12 PMID 20011201
  • Bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine with radiation therapy in rectal cancer: Phase I trial results. (Czito BG, Bendell JC, Willett CG, Morse MA, Blobe GC, Tyler DS, Thomas J, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR, Ashton J, Yu D, Hurwitz HI) Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007 Jun 1;68(2):472-8 PMID 17498568
  • Rectourethral fistula after combination radiotherapy for prostate cancer. (Marguet C, Raj GV, Brashears JH, Anscher MS, Ludwig K, Mouraviev V, Robertson CN, Polascik TJ) Urology 2007 May;69(5):898-901 PMID 17482930
  • Complete pathological response to bevacizumab and chemoradiation in advanced rectal cancer. (Willett CG, Duda DG, di Tomaso E, Boucher Y, Czito BG, Vujaskovic Z, Vlahovic G, Bendell J, Cohen KS, Hurwitz HI, Bentley R, Lauwers GY, Poleski M, Wong TZ, Paulson E, Ludwig KA, Jain RK) Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2007 May;4(5):316-21 PMID 17464339
  • Postoperative ileus-related morbidity profile in patients treated with alvimopan after bowel resection. (Wolff BG, Weese JL, Ludwig KA, Delaney CP, Stamos MJ, Michelassi F, Du W, Techner L) J Am Coll Surg 2007 Apr;204(4):609-16 PMID 17382220
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening Clinical Practice Guidelines. (Levin B, Barthel JS, Burt RW, David DS, Ford JM, Giardiello FM, Gruber SB, Halverson AL, Hamilton S, Kohlmann W, Ludwig KA, Lynch PM, Marino C, Martin EW Jr, Mayer RJ, Pasche B, Pirruccello SJ, Rajput A, Rao MS, Shike M, Steinbach G, Terdiman JP, Weinberg D, Winawer SJ) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2006 Apr;4(4):384-420 PMID 16569391
  • Increased toxicity with gefitinib, capecitabine, and radiation therapy in pancreatic and rectal cancer: phase I trial results. (Czito BG, Willett CG, Bendell JC, Morse MA, Tyler DS, Fernando NH, Mantyh CR, Blobe GC, Honeycutt W, Yu D, Clary BM, Pappas TN, Ludwig KA, Hurwitz HI) J Clin Oncol 2006 Feb 1;24(4):656-62 PMID 16446337
  • Reduction in adhesive small-bowel obstruction by Seprafilm adhesion barrier after intestinal resection. (Fazio VW, Cohen Z, Fleshman JW, van Goor H, Bauer JJ, Wolff BG, Corman M, Beart RW Jr, Wexner SD, Becker JM, Monson JR, Kaufman HS, Beck DE, Bailey HR, Ludwig KA, Stamos MJ, Darzi A, Bleday R, Dorazio R, Madoff RD, Smith LE, Gearhart S, Lillemoe K, Göhl J) Dis Colon Rectum 2006 Jan;49(1):1-11 PMID 16320005
  • Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer: comparable to conventional oncologic surgery? (Bonnor RM, Ludwig KA) Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2005 Aug;18(3):174-81 PMID 20011300
  • Rectal cancer clinical practice guidelines in oncology. (Engstrom PF, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Dilawari RA, Enke CA, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saif MW, Saltz L, Skibber JM, Venook AP, Yeatman TJ, National Comprehensive Cancer Network) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2005 Jul;3(4):492-508 PMID 16038640
  • Anal canal cancer clinical practice guidelines in oncology. (Engstrom PF, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Dilawari RA, Enke CA, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saif MW, Saltz L, Skibber JM, Venook AP, Yeatman TJ, National Comprehensive Cancer Network) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2005 Jul;3(4):510-5 PMID 16038641
  • Colon cancer clinical practice guidelines in oncology. (Engstrom PF, Benson AB 3rd, Chen YJ, Choti MA, Dilawari RA, Enke CA, Fakih MG, Fuchs C, Kiel K, Knol JA, Leong LA, Ludwig KA, Martin EW Jr, Rao S, Saif MW, Saltz L, Skibber JM, Venook AP, Yeatman TJ, National Comprehensive Cancer Network) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2005 Jul;3(4):468-91 PMID 16038639
  • Prevention of postoperative abdominal adhesions by a novel, glycerol/sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose-based bioresorbable membrane: a prospective, randomized, evaluator-blinded multicenter study. (Cohen Z, Senagore AJ, Dayton MT, Koruda MJ, Beck DE, Wolff BG, Fleshner PR, Thirlby RC, Ludwig KA, Larach SW, Weiss EG, Bauer JJ, Holmdahl L) Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jun;48(6):1130-9 PMID 15868230
  • Inhibition of the vanilloid receptor subtype-1 attenuates TNBS-colitis. (Fujino K, Takami Y, de la Fuente SG, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR) J Gastrointest Surg 2004 Nov;8(7):842-7; discussion 847-8 PMID 15531237
  • A Phase I trial of preoperative eniluracil plus 5-fluorouracil and radiation for locally advanced or unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum and colon. (Czito BG, Hong TJ, Cohen DP, Tyler DS, Lee CG, Anscher MS, Ludwig KA, Seigler HF, Mantyh C, Morse MA, Lockhart AC, Petros WP, Honeycutt W, Spector NL, Ertel PJ, Mangum SG, Hurwitz HI) Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004 Mar 1;58(3):779-85 PMID 14967434
  • Elective stoma construction improves outcomes in medically intractable pressure ulcers. (de la Fuente SG, Levin LS, Reynolds JD, Olivares C, Pappas TN, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR) Dis Colon Rectum 2003 Nov;46(11):1525-30 PMID 14605574
  • Loop ileostomy closure at an ambulatory surgery facility: a safe and cost-effective alternative to routine hospitalization. (Kalady MF, Fields RC, Klein S, Nielsen KC, Mantyh CR, Ludwig KA) Dis Colon Rectum 2003 Apr;46(4):486-90 PMID 12682542
  • Preoperative immune status determines anal condyloma recurrence after surgical excision. (de la Fuente SG, Ludwig KA, Mantyh CR) Dis Colon Rectum 2003 Mar;46(3):367-73 PMID 12626913
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding in adult patients with Meckel's diverticulum: the role of technetium 99m pertechnetate scan. (Lin S, Suhocki PV, Ludwig KA, Shetzline MA) South Med J 2002 Nov;95(11):1338-41 PMID 12540005
  • Colorectal cancer screening. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. (Levin B, Ludwig KA, Steinbach G, National Comprehensive Cancer Network) J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2003 Jan;1(1):72-93 PMID 19764152
  • Peptide YY/neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor expression in the epithelium and mucosal nerves of the human colon. (Mannon PJ, Kanungo A, Mannon RB, Ludwig KA) Regul Pept 1999 Aug 31;83(1):11-9 PMID 10498339
  • Management of colorectal-anal dysfunction. (Ludwig KA) Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1998 Dec;25(4):923-44, viii PMID 9921564
  • Management of intrathoracic stomach with polypropylene mesh prosthesis reinforced transabdominal hiatus hernia repair. (Carlson MA, Condon RE, Ludwig KA, Schulte WJ) J Am Coll Surg 1998 Sep;187(3):227-30 PMID 9740178
  • Small bowel intussusception and laparoscopy. (Chekan EG, Westcott C, Low VH, Ludwig KA) Surg Laparosc Endosc 1998 Aug;8(4):324-6 PMID 9703612
  • Perioperative tumor localization for laparoscopic colorectal surgery. (Kim SH, Milsom JW, Church JM, Ludwig KA, Garcia-Ruiz A, Okuda J, Fazio VW) Surg Endosc 1997 Oct;11(10):1013-6 PMID 9381339
  • Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. (Milsom JW, Ludwig KA, Church JM, Garcia-Ruiz A) Dis Colon Rectum 1997 Jun;40(6):675-8 PMID 9194461
  • Right colonic arterial anatomy. Implications for laparoscopic surgery. (Garćia-Ruiz A, Milsom JW, Ludwig KA, Marchesa P) Dis Colon Rectum 1996 Aug;39(8):906-11 PMID 8756847
  • Laparoscopic techniques for fecal diversion. (Ludwig KA, Milsom JW, Garcia-Ruiz A, Fazio VW) Dis Colon Rectum 1996 Mar;39(3):285-8 PMID 8603549
  • Preliminary experience with laparoscopic intestinal surgery for Crohn's disease. (Ludwig KA, Milsom JW, Church JM, Fazio VW) Am J Surg 1996 Jan;171(1):52-5; discussion 55-6 PMID 8554151
  • Shock-associated right colon ischemia and necrosis. (Ludwig KA, Quebbeman EJ, Bergstein JM, Wallace JR, Wittmann DH, Aprahamian C) J Trauma 1995 Dec;39(6):1171-4 PMID 7500415
  • Ventral hernia and other complications of 1,000 midline incisions. (Carlson MA, Ludwig KA, Condon RE) South Med J 1995 Apr;88(4):450-3 PMID 7716599
  • Laparoscopic management of a pancreatic pseudocyst. (Frantzides CT, Ludwig KA, Redlich PN) J Laparoendosc Surg 1994 Feb;4(1):55-9 PMID 8173114
  • Myoelectric motility patterns following open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (Ludwig KA, Frantzides CT, Carlson MA, Grade KL) J Laparoendosc Surg 1993 Oct;3(5):461-6 PMID 8251660
  • Small bowel myoelectric activity in peritonitis. (Frantzides CT, Mathias C, Ludwig KA, Edmiston CE, Condon RE) Am J Surg 1993 Jun;165(6):681-5 PMID 8506966
  • Initial experience with laparoscopic appendectomy. (Ludwig KA, Cattey RP, Henry LG) Dis Colon Rectum 1993 May;36(5):463-7 PMID 8482166
  • Routine or selective intraoperative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (Carlson MA, Ludwig KA, Frantzides CT, Cattey RP, Henry LG, Walker AP, Schulte WJ, Wilson SD) J Laparoendosc Surg 1993 Feb;3(1):27-33 PMID 8453125
  • Laparoscopic closure of gastric stab wounds: a case report. (Frantzides CT, Ludwig KA, Aprahamian C, Salaymeh B) Surg Laparosc Endosc 1993 Feb;3(1):63-6 PMID 8258077
  • Prophylactic antibiotics in surgery. (Ludwig KA, Carlson MA, Condon RE) Annu Rev Med 1993;44:385-93 PMID 8476258
  • Laparoscopic highly selective vagotomy: technique and case report. (Frantzides CT, Ludwig KA, Quebbeman EJ, Burhop J) Surg Laparosc Endosc 1992 Dec;2(4):348-52 PMID 1341563