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Antje Kroner-Milsch MD, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Neurosurgery
Division of Research

VA Medical Center
5000 W National Ave
Milwaukee, WI 53295
PLACE OF BIRTH: Munich, Germany
11/01/1995 - 06/01/2002 MD, Julius-Maximilians-University, Wuerzburg, Germany
01/01/2004 - 08/30/2008 PhD, Julius-Maximilians-University, Wuerzburg, Germany
09/01/2008 - 07/30/2009 Postdoctoral Fellow, Neurology, Developmental Neurobiology, Julius-Maximilians-University, Josef Schneider Strasse, Wuerzburg, Germany
08/01/2009 - 03/31/2014 Postdoctoral Fellow, Neurology, Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Ave, Montreal, QC
04/01/2014 - 08/31/2015 Research Associate, Neurology, Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Ave, Montreal, QC
09/01/2015 - Present Assistant Professor, Neurosurgery, Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, VA Medical Center, 5000 W National Ave, Milwaukee, WV 53295
08/01/2016 - Present Assistant Professor (Secondary Faculty Appointment), Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI
09/01/2005 - Present Yound Investigator Award Multiple Sclerosis, Wyeth
06/01/2016 - Present Imagine More Award, Department of Neuroscience, MCW
2009 - Present Society for Neuroscience (Member)
2010 - Present German Association of Neuroscience (Member)
2010 - Present Canadian Association of Neuroscience (Member)
04/01/2016 - Present National Neurotrauma Society (Member)
Ad-Hoc Reviewer
01/01/2009 - Present J Neuroinflammation
01/01/2010 - Present PlosOne
02/01/2016 - Present Gene
03/01/2016 - Present J Neurosci
08/01/2016 - Present Gene
11/01/2016 - Present BMC Complementary and alternative medicine
03/01/2017 - Present J Neuroscience Research
06/01/2017 - Present Neurochemistry International
06/01/2017 - Present Molecular Cellular Neuroscience
07/01/2017 - Present Free Radical Biology and Medicine
11/25/2017 - Present Nature Neuroscience
Peer Review
Nature and extent of nervous system trauma and modifications to improve the diagnosis and treatment of brain injuries and other forms of nervous system trauma
Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin
Dennis Maiman (Parent Award)
07/01/2015 - 06/30/2020
Direct Funds:
Role of haptoglobin after SCI
Department of Neuroscience
Antje Kroner-Milsch
07/01/2016 - Present
Direct Funds:
Role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha (CCL3) and its receptors after spinal cord
Wings for Life
Antje Kroner-Milsch
07/01/2016 - 06/30/2018
Direct Funds:
Peer Review
Molecular control of myelin breakdown and phagocytosis after nerve injury
Postdoctoral Fellow
Samuel David
06/01/2010 - 03/31/2013
Direct Funds:
$120,000 (Postdoctoral Fellowship)
Inflammatory Response after Spinal Cord Injury
CIHR Neuroinflammation Training Program
Postdoctoral Fellow
Samuel David
04/01/2013 - 03/31/2014
Direct Funds:
$20,000 (Fellowship)
Antje Kroner, Role of macrophages after spinal cord injury, Seminar, Marquette University, 05/10/2016
Antje Kroner, Inflammatory response after spinal cord injury, Seminar, Department of Microbiology, MCW, 05/24/2016
Antje Kroner, Secondary damage in SCI, Neuroscience Board, 11/21/2017 - Present
A. Kroner, Secondary injury after SCI, SCI Center, Clement J. Zablocki VAMC, Milwaukee, 12/08/2017
International Elected/Appointed Leadership and Committee Positions
Kroner, A, Targeting inflammation to reduce secondary damage after SCI, International Symposium on Neural Regeneration, Asilomar, Pacific Grove, CA, 11/27/2017 - 11/30/2017
Antje Kroner, Inflammation after Spinal cord injury, Seminar, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, 05/02/2016
Antje Kroner, Role of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha (CCL3) and its receptors after spinal cord injury (SCI) and its influence on secondary damage, Wings for Life Annual Meeting, Salzburg, Austria, 05/11/2017 - 05/12/2017
A. Kroner, Modulating Inflammation and Secondary Damage in a Mouse Model of Spinal Cord Injury By Targeting IL-12 and IL-23, From Community to Battlefield, MCW, 12/07/2017
Kroner A., Aperi, B., Stehlik, K., David S., . Expression and role of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12 and, National Neurotrauma Society, Annual Meeting, Lexington, KY, 06/26/2016 - 06/29/2016
Antje Kroner, Expression and role of the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL3 and its receptors after spinal cord injury (SCI) and its influence on secondary damage, National Neurotrauma Society, Snowbird, UT, 07/08/2017 - 07/12/2017
Kroner A., Noguiera Santos E., Lopez-Vales R, David S., MK2 contributes to regeneration after peripheral nerve injury., Society of Neuroscience, Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 10/17/2015 - 10/21/2015
Kroner A., Aperi, B., Stehlik, K., David S., Expression and role of IL-12 and IL-23 in spinal cord injury, Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, 11/12/2016 - 11/16/2016
Zarruk, J.G., Noguiera Santos E., Kroner A., David S., Transplantation of bone marrow‐derived, endMS conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, 12/06/2016 - 12/09/2016
Kroner, A, Role and expression of CCL3 and its receptors after spinal cord injury, Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC, 11/11/2017 - 11/15/2017
Medical College
07/04/2016 - Present Member, Research Affairs Committee, MCW
02/02/2016 - Present Scientific member, IACUC, VA Medical Center
Undergraduate Students
Rebecca Kolbeck, MCW, VA Neuroscience Labs, 06/05/2017 - 08/15/2017 Supervising PI, Report
Morgan Weaver, MCW, VA Neuroscience Labs, 06/09/2017 - 07/17/2017 Supervising PI, Report
Edward O'Reilly, MCW/ Marquette, 09/01/2017 - 12/21/2017 Supervising PI
Nicholas Schneider, MCW/ Marquette, 09/01/2017 - 12/21/2017 Supervisiing PI
Refereed Journal Publications/Original Papers
1. David S, Greenhalgh AD, Kroner A. Macrophage and microglial plasticity in the injured spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2015 Oct 29;307:311-8.
2. Zarruk JG, Berard JL, Passos dos Santos R, Kroner A, Lee J, Arosio P, David S. Expression of iron homeostasis proteins in the spinal cord in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and their implications for iron accumulation. Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Sep;81:93-107.
3. Kroner A, Greenhalgh AD, Zarruk JG, Passos Dos Santos R, Gaestel M, David S. TNF and increased intracellular iron alter macrophage polarization to a detrimental M1 phenotype in the injured spinal cord. Neuron. 2014 Sep 03;83(5):1098-116.
4. Lill CM, Schilling M, Ansaloni S, Schröder J, Jaedicke M, Luessi F, Schjeide BM, Mashychev A, Graetz C, Akkad DA, Gerdes LA, Kroner A, Blaschke P, Hoffjan S, Winkelmann A, Dörner T, Rieckmann P, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Lindenberger U, Chan A, Hartung HP, Aktas O, Lohse P, Buttmann M, Kümpfel T, Kubisch C, Zettl UK, Epplen JT, Zipp F, Bertram L. Assessment of microRNA-related SNP effects in the 3' untranslated region of the IL22RA2 risk locus in multiple sclerosis. Neurogenetics. 2014 May;15(2):129-34.
5. International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium, Lill CM, Schjeide BM, Graetz C, Ban M, Alcina A, Ortiz MA, Pérez J, Damotte V, Booth D, Lopez de Lapuente A, Broer L, Schilling M, Akkad DA, Aktas O, Alloza I, Antigüedad A, Arroyo R, Blaschke P, Buttmann M, Chan A, Compston A, Cournu-Rebeix I, Dörner T, Epplen JT, Fernández Ó, Gerdes LA, Guillot-Noël L, Hartung HP, Hoffjan S, Izquierdo G, Kemppinen A, Kroner A, Kubisch C, Kümpfel T, Li SC, Lindenberger U, Lohse P, Lubetzki C, Luessi F, Malhotra S, Mescheriakova J, Montalban X, Papeix C, Paredes LF, Rieckmann P, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Winkelmann A, Zettl UK, Hintzen R, Vandenbroeck K, Stewart G, Fontaine B, Comabella M, Urcelay E, Matesanz F, Sawcer S, Bertram L, Zipp F. MANBA, CXCR5, SOX8, RPS6KB1 and ZBTB46 are genetic risk loci for multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2013 Jun;136(Pt 6):1778-82. PMCID: PMC3673463
6. Ip CW, Kroner A, Groh J, Huber M, Klein D, Spahn I, Diem R, Williams SK, Nave KA, Edgar JM, Martini R. Neuroinflammation by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes impairs retrograde axonal transport in an oligodendrocyte mutant mouse. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42554. PMCID: PMC3414455
7. Schulz K, Kroner A, David S. Iron efflux from astrocytes plays a role in remyelination. J Neurosci. 2012 Apr 04;32(14):4841-7.
8. David S, Kroner A. Repertoire of microglial and macrophage responses after spinal cord injury. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Jun 15;12(7):388-99.
9. Nischwitz S, Cepok S, Kroner A, Wolf C, Knop M, Müller-Sarnowski F, Pfister H, Rieckmann P, Hemmer B, Ising M, Uhr M, Bettecken T, Holsboer F, Müller-Myhsok B, Weber F. More CLEC16A gene variants associated with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011 Jun;123(6):400-6.
10. Nischwitz S, Cepok S, Kroner A, Wolf C, Knop M, Müller-Sarnowski F, Pfister H, Roeske D, Rieckmann P, Hemmer B, Ising M, Uhr M, Bettecken T, Holsboer F, Müller-Myhsok B, Weber F. Evidence for VAV2 and ZNF433 as susceptibility genes for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Oct 08;227(1-2):162-6.
11. Kohl B, Groh J, Wessig C, Wiendl H, Kroner A, Martini R. Lack of evidence for a pathogenic role of T-lymphocytes in an animal model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A. Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Apr;38(1):78-84.
12. Kroner A, Ip CW, Thalhammer J, Nave KA, Martini R. Ectopic T-cell specificity and absence of perforin and granzyme B alleviate neural damage in oligodendrocyte mutant mice. Am J Pathol. 2010 Feb;176(2):549-55. PMCID: PMC2808063
13. Kroner A, Schwab N, Ip CW, Ortler S, Göbel K, Nave KA, Mäurer M, Martini R, Wiendl H. Accelerated course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in PD-1-deficient central nervous system myelin mutants. Am J Pathol. 2009 Jun;174(6):2290-9. PMCID: PMC2684193
14. Kroner A, Schwab N, Ip CW, Leder C, Nave KA, Mäurer M, Wiendl H, Martini R. PD-1 regulates neural damage in oligodendroglia-induced inflammation. PLoS One. 2009;4(2):e4405. PMCID: PMC2635015
15. Ip CW, Kroner A, Kohl B, Wessig C, Martini R. Tacrolimus (FK506) causes disease aggravation in models for inherited peripheral myelinopathies. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Feb;33(2):207-12.
16. Buttmann M, Nowak E, Kroner A, Hemmer B, Lesch KP, Rieckmann P. Analysis of the stathmin rs182455 single nucleotide promoter polymorphism in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurogenet. 2008;22(3):181-6.
17. Kroner A, Schwab N, Ip CW, Sommer C, Wessig C, Wiendl H, Martini R. The co-inhibitory molecule PD-1 modulates disease severity in a model for an inherited, demyelinating neuropathy. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Jan;33(1):96-103.
18. International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (IMSGC). Refining genetic associations in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Jul;7(7):567-9. PMCID: PMC2696028
19. Ip CW, Kohl B, Kleinschnitz C, Reuss B, Nave KA, Kroner A, Martini R. Origin of CD11b+ macrophage-like cells in the CNS of PLP-overexpressing mice: low influx of haematogenous macrophages and unchanged blood-brain-barrier in the optic nerve. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Aug;38(4):489-94.
20. Ortler S, Leder C, Mittelbronn M, Zozulya AL, Knolle PA, Chen L, Kroner A, Wiendl H. B7-H1 restricts neuroantigen-specific T cell responses and confines inflammatory CNS damage: implications for the lesion pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Jun;38(6):1734-44.
21. Weber F, Fontaine B, Cournu-Rebeix I, Kroner A, Knop M, Lutz S, Müller-Sarnowski F, Uhr M, Bettecken T, Kohli M, Ripke S, Ising M, Rieckmann P, Brassat D, Semana G, Babron MC, Mrejen S, Gout C, Lyon-Caen O, Yaouanq J, Edan G, Clanet M, Holsboer F, Clerget-Darpoux F, Müller-Myhsok B. IL2RA and IL7RA genes confer susceptibility for multiple sclerosis in two independent European populations. Genes Immun. 2008 Apr;9(3):259-63.
22. Yu X, Koczan D, Sulonen AM, Akkad DA, Kroner A, Comabella M, Costa G, Corongiu D, Goertsches R, Camina-Tato M, Thiesen HJ, Nyland HI, Mørk SJ, Montalban X, Rieckmann P, Marrosu MG, Myhr KM, Epplen JT, Saarela J, Ibrahim SM. mtDNA nt13708A variant increases the risk of multiple sclerosis. PLoS One. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1530. PMCID: PMC2217590
23. Leder C, Schwab N, Ip CW, Kroner A, Nave KA, Dornmair K, Martini R, Wiendl H. Clonal expansions of pathogenic CD8+ effector cells in the CNS of myelin mutant mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007 Nov;36(3):416-24.
24. Kroner A, Grimm A, Johannssen K, Mäurer M, Wiendl H. The genetic influence of the nonclassical MHC molecule HLA-G on multiple sclerosis. Hum Immunol. 2007 May;68(5):422-5.
25. Ey B, Kobsar I, Blazyca H, Kroner A, Martini R. Visualization of degenerating axons in a dysmyelinating mouse mutant with axonal loss. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007 May;35(1):153-60.
26. Ip CW, Kroner A, Crocker PR, Nave KA, Martini R. Sialoadhesin deficiency ameliorates myelin degeneration and axonopathic changes in the CNS of PLP overexpressing mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2007 Jan;25(1):105-11.
27. Buck D, Kroner A, Rieckmann P, Mäurer M, Wiendl H. Analysis of the C/T(-1) single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD40 gene in multiple sclerosis. Tissue Antigens. 2006 Oct;68(4):335-8.
28. Gronen F, Ruprecht K, Weissbrich B, Klinker E, Kroner A, Hofstetter HH, Rieckmann P. Frequency analysis of HLA-B7-restricted Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Nov;180(1-2):185-92.
29. Ip CW, Kroner A, Bendszus M, Leder C, Kobsar I, Fischer S, Wiendl H, Nave KA, Martini R. Immune cells contribute to myelin degeneration and axonopathic changes in mice overexpressing proteolipid protein in oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci. 2006 Aug 02;26(31):8206-16.
30. Salih HR, Wintterle S, Krusch M, Kroner A, Huang YH, Chen L, Wiendl H. The role of leukemia-derived B7-H1 (PD-L1) in tumor-T-cell interactions in humans. Exp Hematol. 2006 Jul;34(7):888-94.
31. Wang Ip C, Kroner A, Fischer S, Berghoff M, Kobsar I, Mäurer M, Martini R. Role of immune cells in animal models for inherited peripheral neuropathies. Neuromolecular Med. 2006;8(1-2):175-90.
32. Linker RA, Kroner A, Horn T, Gold R, Mäurer M, Bendszus M. Iron particle-enhanced visualization of inflammatory central nervous system lesions by high resolution: preliminary data in an animal model. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1225-9.
33. Kobsar I, Oetke C, Kroner A, Wessig C, Crocker P, Martini R. Attenuated demyelination in the absence of the macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule sialoadhesin (Siglec-1) in mice heterozygously deficient in P0. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006 Apr;31(4):685-91.
34. Zavala-Góngora R, Kroner A, Bernthaler P, Knaus P, Brehm K. A member of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor family from Echinococcus multilocularis is activated by human bone morphogenetic protein 2. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006 Apr;146(2):265-71.
35. Vogler S, Goedde R, Miterski B, Gold R, Kroner A, Koczan D, Zettl UK, Rieckmann P, Epplen JT, Ibrahim SM. Association of a common polymorphism in the promoter of UCP2 with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005 Oct;83(10):806-11.
36. Kroner A, Vogel F, Kolb-Mäurer A, Kruse N, Toyka KV, Hemmer B, Rieckmann P, Mäurer M. Impact of the Asp299Gly polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 4 (tlr-4) gene on disease course of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Aug;165(1-2):161-5.
37. Kroner A, Mehling M, Hemmer B, Rieckmann P, Toyka KV, Mäurer M, Wiendl H. A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2005 Jul;58(1):50-7.
38. Rosche B, Cepok S, Stei S, Vogel F, Grummel V, Hoffmann S, Kroner A, Mäurer M, Rieckmann P, Sommer N, Hemmer B. The role of the polio virus receptor and the herpesvirus entry mediator B genes for the development of MS. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Nov;156(1-2):171-7.
39. Kroner A, Mäurer M, Loserth S, Kleinschnitz C, Hemmer B, Rosche B, Toyka KV, Rieckmann P. Analysis of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 -2518 promoter polymorphism in patients with multiple sclerosis. Tissue Antigens. 2004 Jul;64(1):70-3.
40. Spiliotis M, Kroner A, Brehm K. Identification, molecular characterization and expression of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor orthologue from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Gene. 2003 Dec 24;323:57-65.
41. Zavala-Góngora R, Kroner A, Wittek B, Knaus P, Brehm K. Identification and characterisation of two distinct Smad proteins from the fox-tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Int J Parasitol. 2003 Dec;33(14):1665-77.
42. Brehm K, Wolf M, Beland H, Kroner A, Frosch M. Analysis of differential gene expression in Echinococcus multilocularis larval stages by means of spliced leader differential display. Int J Parasitol. 2003 Sep 30;33(11):1145-59.
43. Konrad C, Kroner A, Spiliotis M, Zavala-Góngora R, Brehm K. Identification and molecular characterisation of a gene encoding a member of the insulin receptor family in Echinococcus multilocularis. Int J Parasitol. 2003 Mar;33(3):301-12.
44. Lill CM, Luessi F, Alcina A, Sokolova EA, Ugidos N, de la Hera B, Guillot-Noël L, Malhotra S, Reinthaler E, Schjeide BM, Mescheriakova JY, Mashychev A, Wohlers I, Akkad DA, Aktas O, Alloza I, Antigüedad A, Arroyo R, Astobiza I, Blaschke P, Boyko AN, Buttmann M, Chan A, Dörner T, Epplen JT, Favorova OO, Fedetz M, Fernández O, García-Martínez A, Gerdes LA, Graetz C, Hartung HP, Hoffjan S, Izquierdo G, Korobko DS, Kroner A, Kubisch C, Kümpfel T, Leyva L, Lohse P, Malkova NA, Montalban X, Popova EV, Rieckmann P, Rozhdestvenskii AS, Schmied C, Smagina IV, Tsareva EY, Winkelmann A, Zettl UK, Binder H, Cournu-Rebeix I, Hintzen R, Zimprich A, Comabella M, Fontaine B, Urcelay E, Vandenbroeck K, Filipenko M, Matesanz F, Zipp F, Bertram L. Genome-wide significant association with seven novel multiple sclerosis risk loci. J Med Genet. 2015 Dec;52(12):848-55.
45. Schrewe L, Lill CM, Liu T, Salmen A, Gerdes LA, Guillot-Noel L, Akkad DA, Blaschke P, Graetz C, Hoffjan S, Kroner A, Demir S, Böhme A, Rieckmann P, ElAli A, Hagemann N, Hermann DM, Cournu-Rebeix I, Zipp F, Kümpfel T, Buttmann M, Zettl UK, Fontaine B, Bertram L, Gold R, Chan A. Investigation of sex-specific effects of apolipoprotein E on severity of EAE and MS. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 16;12:234. PMCID: PMC4681148
46. Siqueira Mietto B, Kroner A, Girolami EI, Santos-Nogueira E, Zhang J, David S. Role of IL-10 in Resolution of Inflammation and Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury. J Neurosci. 2015 Dec 16;35(50):16431-42.
47. Greenhalgh AD, Passos Dos Santos R, Zarruk JG, Salmon CK, Kroner A, David S. Arginase-1 is expressed exclusively by infiltrating myeloid cells in CNS injury and disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug;56:61-7.
48. Sadovnick AD, Traboulsee AL, Bernales CQ, Ross JP, Forwell AL, Yee IM, Guillot-Noel L, Fontaine B, Cournu-Rebeix I, Alcina A, Fedetz M, Izquierdo G, Matesanz F, Hilven K, Dubois B, Goris A, Astobiza I, Alloza I, Antigüedad A, Vandenbroeck K, Akkad DA, Aktas O, Blaschke P, Buttmann M, Chan A, Epplen JT, Gerdes LA, Kroner A, Kubisch C, Kümpfel T, Lohse P, Rieckmann P, Zettl UK, Zipp F, Bertram L, Lill CM, Fernandez O, Urbaneja P, Leyva L, Alvarez-Cermeño JC, Arroyo R, Garagorri AM, García-Martínez A, Villar LM, Urcelay E, Malhotra S, Montalban X, Comabella M, Berger T, Fazekas F, Reindl M, Schmied MC, Zimprich A, Vilariño-Güell C. Analysis of Plasminogen Genetic Variants in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. G3 (Bethesda). 2016 07 07;6(7):2073-9. PMCID: PMC4938660
49. Kaplan A, Morquette B, Kroner A, Leong S, Madwar C, Sanz R, Banerjee SL, Antel J, Bisson N, David S, Fournier AE. Small-Molecule Stabilization of 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions Stimulates Axon Regeneration. Neuron. 2017 Mar 08;93(5):1082-1093.e5.
jenkins-FCD Prod-184 bd837daac8dafa8cf8ba267c72b42239a1c36bf1