Medical College of Wisconsin
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Christopher R. Chitambar MD


Institution: Medical College of Wisconsin
Department: Medicine
Division: Hematology and Oncology
Program: Hematology

Member of the Cancer Center


  • p38γ MAPK Is a Therapeutic Target for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Stimulation of Cancer Stem-Like Cell Expansion. (Qi X, Yin N, Ma S, Lepp A, Tang J, Jing W, Johnson B, Dwinell MB, Chitambar CR, Chen G) Stem Cells 2015 Jun 15: PMID: 26077647
  • Gallium maltolate inhibits human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma tumor development in mice. (Wu X, Wang TW, Lessmann GM, Saleh J, Liu X, Chitambar CR, Hwang ST) J Invest Dermatol 2015 Mar;135(3):877-84 PMID: 25371972
  • Iron-targeting antitumor activity of gallium compounds and novel insights into triapine(®)-metal complexes. (Chitambar CR, Antholine WE) Antioxid Redox Signal 2013 Mar 10;18(8):956-72 PMID: 22900955 PMCID: PMC3557436
  • Gallium-containing anticancer compounds. (Chitambar CR) Future Med Chem 2012 Jun;4(10):1257-72 PMID: 22800370 PMCID: PMC3574811
  • A Phase II Study of Concurrent Docetaxel, Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide as a Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Regimen in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer. (Yao X, Hosenpud J, Chitambar CR, Charlson J, Cheng YC) J Cancer 2012;3:145-51 PMID: 22481980 PMCID: PMC3319980
  • p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) confers breast cancer hormone sensitivity by switching estrogen receptor (ER) signaling from classical to nonclassical pathway via stimulating ER phosphorylation and c-Jun transcription. (Qi X, Zhi H, Lepp A, Wang P, Huang J, Basir Z, Chitambar CR, Myers CR, Chen G) J Biol Chem 2012 Apr 27;287(18):14681-91 PMID: 22399296 PMCID: PMC3340246
  • Cytotoxic Evaluation of 3-Aminopyridine-2-Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone, 3-AP, in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Patients with Refractory Solid Tumors using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. (Kolesar JM, Sachidanandam K, Schelman WR, Eickhoff J, Holen KD, Traynor AM, Alberti DB, Thomas JP, Chitambar CR, Wilding G, Antholine WE) Exp Ther Med 2011 1;2(1):119-123 PMID: 21373381 PMCID: PMC3046871
  • Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds. (Chitambar CR) Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010 May;7(5):2337-61 PMID: 20623028 PMCID: PMC2898053
  • Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma, an exclusively small vessel disease? A case report and review of literature. (Yao X, Saad A, Chitambar CR) Leuk Res 2010 Oct;34(10):e275-7 PMID: 20542564
  • A novel gallium compound synergistically enhances bortezomib-induced apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma cells. (Chitambar CR, Purpi DP) Leuk Res 2010 Jul;34(7):950-3 PMID: 20334913 PMCID: PMC2875307
  • Role of oxidative stress in the induction of metallothionein-2A and heme oxygenase-1 gene expression by the antineoplastic agent gallium nitrate in human lymphoma cells. (Yang M, Chitambar CR) Free Radic Biol Med 2008 Sep 15;45(6):763-72 PMID: 18586083 PMCID: PMC2610863
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with refractory solid tumors treated with Triapine. (Kolesar JM, Schelman WR, Geiger PG, Holen KD, Traynor AM, Alberti DB, Thomas JP, Chitambar CR, Wilding G, Antholine WE) J Inorg Biochem 2008 Apr;102(4):693-8 PMID: 18061679 PMCID: PMC2390869
  • Case reports: efalizumab-associated lymphoproliferative disease. (Bommakanti S, Patil A, Eshoa C, Chitambar CR) J Drugs Dermatol 2007 Jun;6(6):646-8 PMID: 17668531
  • Development of gallium compounds for treatment of lymphoma: gallium maltolate, a novel hydroxypyrone gallium compound, induces apoptosis and circumvents lymphoma cell resistance to gallium nitrate. (Chitambar CR, Purpi DP, Woodliff J, Yang M, Wereley JP) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007 Sep;322(3):1228-36 PMID: 17600139
  • Gene expression analysis of gallium-resistant and gallium-sensitive lymphoma cells reveals a role for metal-responsive transcription factor-1, metallothionein-2A, and zinc transporter-1 in modulating the antineoplastic activity of gallium nitrate. (Yang M, Kroft SH, Chitambar CR) Mol Cancer Ther 2007 Feb;6(2):633-43 PMID: 17308060
  • Gallium-induced cell death in lymphoma: role of transferrin receptor cycling, involvement of Bax and the mitochondria, and effects of proteasome inhibition. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP, Matsuyama S) Mol Cancer Ther 2006 Nov;5(11):2834-43 PMID: 17121930
  • Expression of the hemochromatosis gene modulates the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. (Chitambar CR, Kotamraju S, Wereley JP) Int J Cancer 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2200-4 PMID: 16823846
  • Resistance to the antineoplastic agent gallium nitrate results in marked alterations in intracellular iron and gallium trafficking: identification of novel intermediates. (Davies NP, Suryo Rahmanto Y, Chitambar CR, Richardson DR) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006 Apr;317(1):153-62 PMID: 16373528
  • Cellular iron metabolism: mitochondria in the spotlight. (Chitambar CR) Blood 2005 Mar 1;105(5):1844-5 PMID: 15747401
  • Apoptotic mechanisms of gallium nitrate: basic and clinical investigations. (Chitambar CR) Oncology (Williston Park) 2004 Nov;18(13 Suppl 10):39-44 PMID: 15651176
  • Gallium compounds as antineoplastic agents. (Chitambar CR) Curr Opin Oncol 2004 Nov;16(6):547-52 PMID: 15627016
  • Gallium nitrate for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (Chitambar CR) Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2004 May;13(5):531-41 PMID: 15155128
  • Mantle cell lymphoma in lymph nodes with metastatic small cell carcinoma of lung: a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. (Kampalath B, Abed N, Chitambar CR, Vantuinen P, Chakrabarty G, Hanson G, Rao RN, Shidham VB, Chang CC) Leuk Lymphoma 2004 Feb;45(2):409-14 PMID: 15101734
  • Oxidant-induced iron signaling in Doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis. (Kotamraju S, Kalivendi SV, Konorev E, Chitambar CR, Joseph J, Kalyanaraman B) Methods Enzymol 2004;378:362-82 PMID: 15038980
  • Nitric oxide mitigates peroxide-induced iron-signaling, oxidative damage, and apoptosis in endothelial cells: role of proteasomal function? (Kotamraju S, Tampo Y, Kalivendi SV, Joseph J, Chitambar CR, Kalyanaraman B) Arch Biochem Biophys 2004 Mar 1;423(1):74-80 PMID: 14989268
  • Nitric oxide inhibits H2O2-induced transferrin receptor-dependent apoptosis in endothelial cells: Role of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (Kotamraju S, Tampo Y, Keszler A, Chitambar CR, Joseph J, Haas AL, Kalyanaraman B) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Sep 16;100(19):10653-8 PMID: 12958216 PMCID: PMC196859
  • Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism C3435T of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (Efferth T, Sauerbrey A, Steinbach D, Gebhart E, Drexler HG, Miyachi H, Chitambar CR, Becker CM, Zintl F, Humeny A) Int J Oncol 2003 Aug;23(2):509-17 PMID: 12851703
  • Expression of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene modulates the cellular uptake of 67Ga. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP) J Nucl Med 2003 Jun;44(6):943-6 PMID: 12791823
  • Gallium nitrate revisited. (Chitambar CR) Semin Oncol 2003 Apr;30(2 Suppl 5):1-4 PMID: 12776253
  • Oxidative stress-induced iron signaling is responsible for peroxide-dependent oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein in endothelial cells: role of transferrin receptor-dependent iron uptake in apoptosis. (Tampo Y, Kotamraju S, Chitambar CR, Kalivendi SV, Keszler A, Joseph J, Kalyanaraman B) Circ Res 2003 Jan 10;92(1):56-63 PMID: 12522121
  • Genomic imbalances in drug-resistant T-cell acute lymphoblastic CEM leukemia cell lines. (Efferth T, Verdorfer I, Miyachi H, Sauerbrey A, Drexler HG, Chitambar CR, Haber M, Gebhart E) Blood Cells Mol Dis 2002 Jul-Aug;29(1):1-13 PMID: 12482398
  • Expression of MUM1/IRF4 correlates with clinical outcome in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Chang CC, Lorek J, Sabath DE, Li Y, Chitambar CR, Logan B, Kampalath B, Cleveland RP) Blood 2002 Dec 15;100(13):4671-5 PMID: 12393648
  • CD5+ T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. (Chang CC, Bunyi-Teopengco E, Eshoa C, Chitambar CR, Kampalath B) Mod Pathol 2002 Oct;15(10):1051-7 PMID: 12379751
  • Diagnosis, workup, and prognosis of cutaneous metastases of unknown primary origin. (Carroll MC, Fleming M, Chitambar CR, Neuburg M) Dermatol Surg 2002 Jun;28(6):533-5 PMID: 12081687
  • Transferrin receptor-dependent iron uptake is responsible for doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells: role of oxidant-induced iron signaling in apoptosis. (Kotamraju S, Chitambar CR, Kalivendi SV, Joseph J, Kalyanaraman B) J Biol Chem 2002 May 10;277(19):17179-87 PMID: 11856741
  • Inhibition of malignant cell growth by 311, a novel iron chelator of the pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone class: effect on the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. (Green DA, Antholine WE, Wong SJ, Richardson DR, Chitambar CR) Clin Cancer Res 2001 Nov;7(11):3574-9 PMID: 11705879
  • Iron transport in a lymphoid cell line with the hemochromatosis C282Y mutation. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP) Blood 2001 May 1;97(9):2734-40 PMID: 11313265
  • The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer. (Efferth T, Dunstan H, Sauerbrey A, Miyachi H, Chitambar CR) Int J Oncol 2001 Apr;18(4):767-73 PMID: 11251172
  • Cellular adaptation to down-regulated iron transport into lymphoid leukaemic cells: effects on the expression of the gene for ribonucleotide reductase. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP, Heiman T, Antholine WE, O'brien WJ) Biochem J 2000 Feb 1;345 Pt 3:681-5 PMID: 10642528 PMCID: PMC1220804
  • Increased sensitivity of hydroxyurea-resistant leukemic cells to gemcitabine. (Wong SJ, Myette MS, Wereley JP, Chitambar CR) Clin Cancer Res 1999 Feb;5(2):439-43 PMID: 10037195
  • Interaction of gallium nitrate with other inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase: effects on the proliferation of human leukemic cells. (Myette MS, Elford HL, Chitambar CR) Cancer Lett 1998 Jul 17;129(2):199-204 PMID: 9719462
  • Gallium-pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (Ga-PIH), a novel cytotoxic gallium complex. A comparative study with gallium nitrate. (Knorr GM, Chitambar CR) Anticancer Res 1998 May-Jun;18(3A):1733-7 PMID: 9673397
  • Transferrin receptor-dependent and -independent iron transport in gallium-resistant human lymphoid leukemic cells. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP) Blood 1998 Jun 15;91(12):4686-93 PMID: 9616166
  • Resistance to the antitumor agent gallium nitrate in human leukemic cells is associated with decreased gallium/iron uptake, increased activity of iron regulatory protein-1, and decreased ferritin production. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP) J Biol Chem 1997 May 2;272(18):12151-7 PMID: 9115286
  • Evaluation of continuous-infusion gallium nitrate and hydroxyurea in combination for the treatment of refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (Chitambar CR, Zahir SA, Ritch PS, Anderson T) Am J Clin Oncol 1997 Apr;20(2):173-8 PMID: 9124195
  • Effect of gallium nitrate therapy on Ga-67 scintigraphic detection of lymphoma: case report. (Akansel G, Liu Y, Chitambar CR, Kitapci MT, Akansel S, Krasnow AZ, Isitman AT, Collier BD) Clin Nucl Med 1997 Jan;22(1):21-4 PMID: 8993868
  • Modulation of in vitro and in vivo T-cell responses by transferrin-gallium and gallium nitrate. (Drobyski WR, Ul-Haq R, Majewski D, Chitambar CR) Blood 1996 Oct 15;88(8):3056-64 PMID: 8874204
  • Evaluation of transferrin and gallium-pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone as potential therapeutic agents to overcome lymphoid leukemic cell resistance to gallium nitrate. (Chitambar CR, Boon P, Wereley JP) Clin Cancer Res 1996 Jun;2(6):1009-15 PMID: 9816262
  • Effect of hydroxyurea on cellular iron metabolism in human leukemic CCRF-CEM cells: changes in iron uptake and the regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin gene expression following inhibition of DNA synthesis. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP) Cancer Res 1995 Oct 1;55(19):4361-6 PMID: 7671248
  • Induction of apoptosis by iron deprivation in human leukemic CCRF-CEM cells. (Haq RU, Wereley JP, Chitambar CR) Exp Hematol 1995 May;23(5):428-32 PMID: 7720813
  • Gallium nitrate delays the progression of microscopic disease in a human medulloblastoma murine model. (Whelan HT, Williams MB, Bajic DM, Flores RE, Schmidt MH, McAuliffe TL, Chitambar CR) Pediatr Neurol 1994 Jul;11(1):44-6 PMID: 7986292
  • Synergistic inhibition of T-lymphoblastic leukemic CCRF-CEM cell growth by gallium and recombinant human alpha-interferon through action on cellular iron uptake. (Chitambar CR, Wereley JP, Riaz-ul-Haq) Cancer Res 1994 Jun 15;54(12):3224-8 PMID: 8205543
  • Prevention of gallium toxicity by hyperhydration in treatment of medulloblastoma. (Whelan HT, Williams MB, Bajic DM, Segura AD, McAuliffe TL, Chitambar CR) Pediatr Neurol 1994 May;10(3):217-20 PMID: 8060423
  • Modulation of transferrin receptor mRNA by transferrin-gallium in human myeloid HL60 and lymphoid CCRF-CEM leukaemic cells. (Ul-Haq R, Chitambar CR) Biochem J 1993 Sep 15;294 ( Pt 3):873-7 PMID: 8379943 PMCID: PMC1134543
  • Effect of gallium on the tyrosyl radical of the iron-dependent M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. (Narasimhan J, Antholine WE, Chitambar CR) Biochem Pharmacol 1992 Dec 15;44(12):2403-8 PMID: 1335254
  • Antineoplastic effects of gallium nitrate on human medulloblastoma in vivo. (Whelan HT, Schmidt MH, Anderson GS, Chan BK, Hunter K, Kubacki D, Segura AD, Chitambar CR) Pediatr Neurol 1992 Sep-Oct;8(5):323-7 PMID: 1418174
  • Regulatory effects of gallium on transferrin-independent iron uptake by human leukemic HL60 cells. (Chitambar CR, Sax D) Blood 1992 Jul 15;80(2):505-11 PMID: 1627803
  • Aspergillus and aspergillosis. (Rhodes JC, Jensen HE, Nilius AM, Chitambar CR, Farmer SG, Washburn RG, Steele PE, Amlung TW) J Med Vet Mycol 1992;30 Suppl 1:51-7 PMID: 1474459
  • Twice-daily tapering dexamethasone treatment during cranial radiation for newly diagnosed brain metastases. (Weissman DE, Janjan NA, Erickson B, Wilson FJ, Greenberg M, Ritch PS, Anderson T, Hansen RM, Chitambar CR, Lawton CA) J Neurooncol 1991 Dec;11(3):235-9 PMID: 1726656
  • Inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase by gallium in murine leukemic L1210 cells. (Chitambar CR, Narasimhan J, Guy J, Sem DS, O'Brien WJ) Cancer Res 1991 Nov 15;51(22):6199-201 PMID: 1933878
  • Shedding of transferrin receptor from rat reticulocytes during maturation in vitro: soluble transferrin receptor is derived from receptor shed in vesicles. (Chitambar CR, Loebel AL, Noble NA) Blood 1991 Nov 1;78(9):2444-50 PMID: 1932757
  • Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for relapsed and refractory lymphoma using genotypically HLA-identical and alternative donors. (Lundberg JH, Hansen RM, Chitambar CR, Lawton CA, Gottlieb M, Anderson T, Ash RC) J Clin Oncol 1991 Oct;9(10):1848-59 PMID: 1919635
  • Alteration of DNA synthesis in human brain tumor cells by gallium nitrate in vitro. (Whelan HT, Przybylski C, Chitambar CR) Pediatr Neurol 1991 Sep-Oct;7(5):352-4 PMID: 1764137
  • Inhibition of iron uptake in HL60 cells by 2-formylpyridine monothiosemicarbazonato Cu(II). (Narasimhan J, Antholine WE, Chitambar CR, Petering DH) Arch Biochem Biophys 1991 Sep;289(2):393-8 PMID: 1654860
  • Evaluation of continuous infusion low-dose 5-azacytidine in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. (Chitambar CR, Libnoch JA, Matthaeus WG, Ash RC, Ritch PS, Anderson T) Am J Hematol 1991 Jun;37(2):100-4 PMID: 1712548
  • Differential effects of gallium nitrate on proliferation of brain tumor cells in vitro. (Whelan HT, Przybylski C, Chitambar CR) Pediatr Neurol 1991 Jan-Feb;7(1):23-7 PMID: 2029289
  • Targeting iron-dependent DNA synthesis with gallium and transferrin-gallium. (Chitambar CR, Narasimhan J) Pathobiology 1991;59(1):3-10 PMID: 1645976
  • Interaction of gallium nitrate with fludarabine and iron chelators: effects on the proliferation of human leukemic HL60 cells. (Lundberg JH, Chitambar CR) Cancer Res 1990 Oct 15;50(20):6466-70 PMID: 1698536
  • Influence of cellular iron status on the release of soluble transferrin receptor from human promyelocytic leukemic HL60 cells. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic-Gilgenbach Z) J Lab Clin Med 1990 Sep;116(3):345-53 PMID: 2401848
  • Development of drug resistance to gallium nitrate through modulation of cellular iron uptake. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic-Gilgenbach Z, Narasimhan J, Antholine WE) Cancer Res 1990 Aug 1;50(15):4468-72 PMID: 2164439
  • Role of the acidic receptosome in the uptake and retention of 67Ga by human leukemic HL60 cells. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic-Gilgenbach Z) Cancer Res 1990 Mar 1;50(5):1484-7 PMID: 2302713
  • Successful allogeneic transplantation of T-cell-depleted bone marrow from closely HLA-matched unrelated donors. (Ash RC, Casper JT, Chitambar CR, Hansen R, Bunin N, Truitt RL, Lawton C, Murray K, Hunter J, Baxter-Lowe LA) N Engl J Med 1990 Feb 22;322(8):485-94 PMID: 2300120
  • Release of soluble transferrin receptor from the surface of human leukemic HL60 cells. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic Z) Blood 1989 Aug 1;74(2):602-8 PMID: 2752136
  • Transferrin receptor-mediated suppression of in vitro hematopoiesis by transferrin-gallium. (Chitambar CR, Craig A, Ash RC) Exp Hematol 1989 Jun;17(5):418-22 PMID: 2714421
  • Modulation of lymphocyte proliferation and immunoglobulin production by transferrin-gallium. (Chitambar CR, Seigneuret MC, Matthaeus WG, Lum LG) Cancer Res 1989 Mar 1;49(5):1125-9 PMID: 2537143
  • Inhibition of leukemic HL60 cell growth by transferrin-gallium: effects on ribonucleotide reductase and demonstration of drug synergy with hydroxyurea. (Chitambar CR, Matthaeus WG, Antholine WE, Graff K, O'Brien WJ) Blood 1988 Dec;72(6):1930-6 PMID: 3058232
  • Pityrosporum folliculitis after bone marrow transplantation. Clinical observations in five patients. (Bufill JA, Lum LG, Caya JG, Chitambar CR, Ritch PS, Anderson T, Ash RC) Ann Intern Med 1988 Apr;108(4):560-3 PMID: 3279893
  • Uptake of gallium-67 by human leukemic cells: demonstration of transferrin receptor-dependent and transferrin-independent mechanisms. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic Z) Cancer Res 1987 Aug 1;47(15):3929-34 PMID: 3475168
  • Inhibition of hemoglobin production by transferrin-gallium. (Chitambar CR, Zivkovic Z) Blood 1987 Jan;69(1):144-9 PMID: 3790721
  • Effects of different transferrin forms on transferrin receptor expression, iron uptake, and cellular proliferation of human leukemic HL60 cells. Mechanisms responsible for the specific cytotoxicity of transferrin-gallium. (Chitambar CR, Seligman PA) J Clin Invest 1986 Dec;78(6):1538-46 PMID: 3465751 PMCID: PMC423914
  • Familial leukemia and aplastic anemia associated with monosomy 7. (Chitambar CR, Robinson WA, Glode LM) Am J Med 1983 Nov;75(5):756-62 PMID: 6638045
  • Regulation of transferrin receptor expression on human leukemic cells during proliferation and induction of differentiation. Effects of gallium and dimethylsulfoxide. (Chitambar CR, Massey EJ, Seligman PA) J Clin Invest 1983 Oct;72(4):1314-25 PMID: 6313760 PMCID: PMC370415
  • Last update: 07/27/2015