Medical College of Wisconsin
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Karyn Frick BA,MA,PhD


Institution: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: Psychology

Member of the Neuroscience Research Center


  • Chemogenetic inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, individually and concurrently, impairs object recognition and spatial memory consolidation in female mice. (Tuscher JJ, Taxier LR, Fortress AM, Frick KM) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec;156:103-116 PMID: 30408525 11/09/2018    
  • Sex Differences in the Rapid Cell Signaling Mechanisms Underlying the Memory-Enhancing Effects of 17β-Estradiol. (Koss WA, Haertel JM, Philippi SM, Frick KM) eNeuro 2018 Sep-Oct;5(5) PMID: 30406188 PMCID: PMC6220582 11/09/2018       1 Citations
  • Estradiol and hippocampal memory in female and male rodents. (Frick KM, Kim J, Koss WA) Curr Opin Behav Sci 2018 Oct;23:65-74 PMID: 30345337 PMCID: PMC6191066 10/23/2018    
  • A-C Estrogens as Potent and Selective Estrogen Receptor-Beta Agonists (SERBAs) to Enhance Memory Consolidation under Low-Estrogen Conditions. (Hanson AM, Perera KLIS, Kim J, Pandey RK, Sweeney N, Lu X, Imhoff A, Mackinnon AC, Wargolet AJ, Van Hart RM, Frick KM, Donaldson WA, Sem DS) J Med Chem 2018 Jun 14;61(11):4720-4738 PMID: 29741891 05/10/2018    
  • Mechanisms underlying the rapid effects of estradiol and progesterone on hippocampal memory consolidation in female rodents. (Frick KM, Kim J) Horm Behav 2018 May 09 PMID: 29727606 PMCID: PMC6226372 05/05/2018    
  • Sex differences in the brain: Implications for behavioral and biomedical research. (Choleris E, Galea LAM, Sohrabji F, Frick KM) Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 02;85:126-145 PMID: 29287628 PMCID: PMC5751942 12/31/2017       14 Citations
  • Distinct effects of estrogen receptor antagonism on object recognition and spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized mice. (Kim J, Frick KM) Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 Nov;85:110-114 PMID: 28846921 08/29/2017       5 Citations
  • 17β-Estradiol Potentiates the Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Female Rats: Role of the Prelimbic Prefrontal Cortex and Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptors. (Doncheck EM, Urbanik LA, DeBaker MC, Barron LM, Liddiard GT, Tuscher JJ, Frick KM, Hillard CJ, Mantsch JR) Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 03;43(4):781-790 PMID: 28825421 PMCID: PMC5809785 08/22/2017       2 Citations
  • Estrogenic regulation of memory consolidation: A look beyond the hippocampus, ovaries, and females. (Frick KM, Tuscher JJ, Koss WA, Kim J, Taxier LR) Physiol Behav 2018 04 01;187:57-66 PMID: 28755863 PMCID: PMC5787049 08/02/2017       9 Citations
  • Rapid actions of oestrogens and their receptors on memory acquisition and consolidation in females. (Sheppard PAS, Koss WA, Frick KM, Choleris E) J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Feb;30(2) PMID: 28489296 05/11/2017    
  • Sex differences in hippocampal function. (Koss WA, Frick KM) J Neurosci Res 2017 01 02;95(1-2):539-562 PMID: 27870401 11/22/2016       16 Citations
  • Inhibition of local estrogen synthesis in the hippocampus impairs hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice. (Tuscher JJ, Szinte JS, Starrett JR, Krentzel AA, Fortress AM, Remage-Healey L, Frick KM) Horm Behav 2016 07;83:60-67 PMID: 27178577 PMCID: PMC4915975 05/15/2016       30 Citations
  • Why estrogens matter for behavior and brain health. (Galea LAM, Frick KM, Hampson E, Sohrabji F, Choleris E) Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 05;76(Pt B):363-379 PMID: 27039345 PMCID: PMC5045786 04/04/2016       27 Citations
  • 17β-Estradiol and Agonism of G-protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Enhance Hippocampal Memory via Different Cell-Signaling Mechanisms. (Kim J, Szinte JS, Boulware MI, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2016 Mar 16;36(11):3309-21 PMID: 26985039 PMCID: PMC4792941 03/18/2016       30 Citations
  • Estradiol-Mediated Spine Changes in the Dorsal Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Ovariectomized Female Mice Depend on ERK and mTOR Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus. (Tuscher JJ, Luine V, Frankfurt M, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2016 Feb 03;36(5):1483-9 PMID: 26843632 PMCID: PMC4737764 02/05/2016       40 Citations
  • Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents. (Frick KM, Kim J, Tuscher JJ, Fortress AM) Learn Mem 2015 Sep;22(9):472-93 PMID: 26286657 PMCID: PMC4561402 08/20/2015       49 Citations
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the memory-enhancing effects of estradiol. (Frick KM) Horm Behav 2015 Aug;74:4-18 PMID: 25960081 PMCID: PMC4573242 05/12/2015       53 Citations
  • Hippocampal Wnt Signaling: Memory Regulation and Hormone Interactions. (Fortress AM, Frick KM) Neuroscientist 2016 06;22(3):278-94 PMID: 25717070 02/27/2015       21 Citations
  • Prenatal stress induces spatial memory deficits and epigenetic changes in the hippocampus indicative of heterochromatin formation and reduced gene expression. (Benoit JD, Rakic P, Frick KM) Behav Brain Res 2015 Mar 15;281:1-8 PMID: 25496779 PMCID: PMC4305490 12/17/2014       31 Citations
  • The mTOR and canonical Wnt signaling pathways mediate the mnemonic effects of progesterone in the dorsal hippocampus. (Fortress AM, Heisler JD, Frick KM) Hippocampus 2015 May;25(5):616-29 PMID: 25483228 12/09/2014       15 Citations
  • Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones. (Tuscher JJ, Fortress AM, Kim J, Frick KM) Behav Brain Res 2015 May 15;285:140-57 PMID: 25131507 PMCID: PMC4329280 08/19/2014       39 Citations
  • 17β-Estradiol regulates histone alterations associated with memory consolidation and increases Bdnf promoter acetylation in middle-aged female mice. (Fortress AM, Kim J, Poole RL, Gould TJ, Frick KM) Learn Mem 2014 Sep;21(9):457-67 PMID: 25128537 PMCID: PMC4138358 08/17/2014       20 Citations
  • Epigenetic regulation of estrogen-dependent memory. (Fortress AM, Frick KM) Front Neuroendocrinol 2014 Oct;35(4):530-49 PMID: 24878494 PMCID: PMC4174980 06/01/2014       33 Citations
  • The memory-enhancing effects of hippocampal estrogen receptor activation involve metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling. (Boulware MI, Heisler JD, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2013 Sep 18;33(38):15184-94 PMID: 24048848 09/21/2013       86 Citations
  • Epigenetics, oestradiol and hippocampal memory consolidation. (Frick KM) J Neuroendocrinol 2013 Nov;25(11):1151-62 PMID: 24028406 PMCID: PMC3943552 09/14/2013       18 Citations
  • Canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation. (Fortress AM, Schram SL, Tuscher JJ, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2013 Jul 31;33(31):12619-26 PMID: 23904598 08/02/2013       53 Citations
  • 17β-estradiol is necessary for extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats. (Twining RC, Tuscher JJ, Doncheck EM, Frick KM, Mueller D) Learn Mem 2013 May 15;20(6):300-6 PMID: 23676202 05/17/2013       9 Citations
  • Estradiol-induced object recognition memory consolidation is dependent on activation of mTOR signaling in the dorsal hippocampus. (Fortress AM, Fan L, Orr PT, Zhao Z, Frick KM) Learn Mem 2013 Feb 19;20(3):147-55 PMID: 23422279 PMCID: PMC3578274 02/21/2013       63 Citations
  • Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition. (Zhao Z, Fan L, Fortress AM, Boulware MI, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2012 Feb 15;32(7):2344-51 PMID: 22396409 PMCID: PMC3401048 03/08/2012       67 Citations
  • Building a better hormone therapy? How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline. (Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2012 Feb;126(1):29-53 PMID: 22289043 PMCID: PMC3401046 02/01/2012       42 Citations
  • Introduction to the special section on "Hormones and cognition: perspectives, controversies, and challenges for future research". (Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2012 Feb;126(1):1-3 PMID: 22289041 02/01/2012       1 Citations
  • The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. (Orr PT, Rubin AJ, Fan L, Kent BA, Frick KM) Horm Behav 2012 Apr;61(4):487-95 PMID: 22265866 PMCID: PMC3401043 01/24/2012       28 Citations
  • Introduction to the special issue of Neurobiology of Learning and Memory on memory impairment and disease. (Frick KM, Korol DL) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2011 Nov;96(4):505-6 PMID: 21945881 PMCID: PMC4462193 09/29/2011    
  • The epigenetics of estrogen: epigenetic regulation of hormone-induced memory enhancement. (Frick KM, Zhao Z, Fan L) Epigenetics 2011 Jun;6(6):675-80 PMID: 21593594 PMCID: PMC5360196 05/20/2011    
  • The impact of age-related ovarian hormone loss on cognitive and neural function. (Boulware MI, Kent BA, Frick KM) Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2012;10:165-84 PMID: 21533680 05/03/2011       27 Citations
  • Use it or lose it: environmental enrichment as a means to promote successful cognitive aging. (Frick KM, Benoit JD) ScientificWorldJournal 2010 Jun 16;10:1129-41 PMID: 20563536 PMCID: PMC4462190 06/22/2010       24 Citations
  • Estradiol-induced object memory consolidation in middle-aged female mice requires dorsal hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. (Fan L, Zhao Z, Orr PT, Chambers CH, Lewis MC, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2010 Mar 24;30(12):4390-400 PMID: 20335475 PMCID: PMC2852263 03/26/2010       86 Citations
  • Epigenetic alterations regulate estradiol-induced enhancement of memory consolidation. (Zhao Z, Fan L, Frick KM) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Mar 23;107(12):5605-10 PMID: 20212170 PMCID: PMC2851775 03/10/2010       112 Citations
  • A new approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms through which estrogens affect cognition. (Frick KM, Fernandez SM, Harburger LL) Biochim Biophys Acta 2010 Oct;1800(10):1045-55 PMID: 19913600 PMCID: PMC2888644 11/17/2009       46 Citations
  • Dorsal hippocampal progesterone infusions enhance object recognition in young female mice. (Orr PT, Lewis MC, Frick KM) Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2009 Aug;93(2):177-82 PMID: 19477194 PMCID: PMC2710613 05/30/2009       26 Citations
  • Dose-dependent effects of post-training estradiol plus progesterone treatment on object memory consolidation and hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in young ovariectomized mice. (Harburger LL, Saadi A, Frick KM) Neuroscience 2009 Apr 21;160(1):6-12 PMID: 19223011 PMCID: PMC2668744 02/19/2009       33 Citations
  • Sex differences in contextual fear conditioning are associated with differential ventral hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. (Gresack JE, Schafe GE, Orr PT, Frick KM) Neuroscience 2009 Mar 17;159(2):451-67 PMID: 19171181 01/28/2009       31 Citations
  • The effects of acute 17beta-estradiol treatment on gene expression in the young female mouse hippocampus. (Pechenino AS, Frick KM) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2009 Mar;91(3):315-22 PMID: 18938255 PMCID: PMC2674265 10/22/2008       25 Citations
  • Estrogens and age-related memory decline in rodents: what have we learned and where do we go from here? (Frick KM) Horm Behav 2009 Jan;55(1):2-23 PMID: 18835561 PMCID: PMC2664384 10/07/2008       136 Citations
  • Estradiol-induced enhancement of object memory consolidation involves hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and membrane-bound estrogen receptors. (Fernandez SM, Lewis MC, Pechenino AS, Harburger LL, Orr PT, Gresack JE, Schafe GE, Frick KM) J Neurosci 2008 Aug 27;28(35):8660-7 PMID: 18753366 PMCID: PMC2693006 08/30/2008       165 Citations
  • Differential effects of acute progesterone administration on spatial and object memory in middle-aged and aged female C57BL/6 mice. (Lewis MC, Orr PT, Frick KM) Horm Behav 2008 Aug;54(3):455-62 PMID: 18585714 PMCID: PMC2586174 07/01/2008       31 Citations
  • Estradiol-induced enhancement of object memory consolidation involves NMDA receptors and protein kinase A in the dorsal hippocampus of female C57BL/6 mice. (Lewis MC, Kerr KM, Orr PT, Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2008 Jun;122(3):716-21 PMID: 18513142 PMCID: PMC2673328 06/03/2008       69 Citations
  • Life-long environmental enrichment differentially affects the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, middle-aged, and aged female mice. (Gresack JE, Kerr KM, Frick KM) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2007 Nov;88(4):393-408 PMID: 17869132 PMCID: PMC2098878 09/18/2007       58 Citations
  • Age-dependent effects of environmental enrichment on spatial reference memory in male mice. (Harburger LL, Lambert TJ, Frick KM) Behav Brain Res 2007 Dec 11;185(1):43-8 PMID: 17707521 PMCID: PMC2603144 08/21/2007       64 Citations
  • Single enrichment variables differentially reduce age-related memory decline in female mice. (Harburger LL, Nzerem CK, Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2007 Aug;121(4):679-88 PMID: 17663593 08/01/2007       32 Citations
  • Short-term environmental enrichment decreases the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, but not aged, female mice. (Gresack JE, Kerr KM, Frick KM) Brain Res 2007 Jul 30;1160:91-101 PMID: 17572392 06/19/2007       33 Citations
  • Effects of continuous and intermittent estrogen treatments on memory in aging female mice. (Gresack JE, Frick KM) Brain Res 2006 Oct 18;1115(1):135-47 PMID: 16920082 08/22/2006       42 Citations
  • Post-training estrogen enhances spatial and object memory consolidation in female mice. (Gresack JE, Frick KM) Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2006 May;84(1):112-9 PMID: 16759685 06/09/2006       94 Citations
  • Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females. (Harburger LL, Bennett JC, Frick KM) Neurobiol Aging 2007 Apr;28(4):602-10 PMID: 16621169 04/20/2006       64 Citations
  • Long-term continuous, but not daily, environmental enrichment reduces spatial memory decline in aged male mice. (Bennett JC, McRae PA, Levy LJ, Frick KM) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2006 Mar;85(2):139-52 PMID: 16256380 11/01/2005       115 Citations
  • Men and women differ in object memory but not performance of a virtual radial maze. (Levy LJ, Astur RS, Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2005 Aug;119(4):853-62 PMID: 16187814 09/29/2005       67 Citations
  • Different types of environmental enrichment have discrepant effects on spatial memory and synaptophysin levels in female mice. (Lambert TJ, Fernandez SM, Frick KM) Neurobiol Learn Mem 2005 May;83(3):206-16 PMID: 15820856 04/12/2005       131 Citations
  • Chronic oral estrogen affects memory and neurochemistry in middle-aged female mice. (Fernandez SM, Frick KM) Behav Neurosci 2004 Dec;118(6):1340-51 PMID: 15598143 PMCID: PMC1483220 12/16/2004       74 Citations
  • Environmental enrichment reduces the mnemonic and neural benefits of estrogen. (Gresack JE, Frick KM) Neuroscience 2004;128(3):459-71 PMID: 15381276 PMCID: PMC1513274 09/24/2004       66 Citations
  • Behavioral training interferes with the ability of gonadal hormones to increase CA1 spine synapse density in ovariectomized female rats. (Frick KM, Fernandez SM, Bennett JC, Prange-Kiel J, MacLusky NJ, Leranth C) Eur J Neurosci 2004 Jun;19(11):3026-32 PMID: 15182310 PMCID: PMC1482789 06/09/2004       67 Citations
  • Effects of complete immunotoxin lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain on fear conditioning and spatial learning. (Frick KM, Kim JJ, Baxter MG) Hippocampus 2004;14(2):244-54 PMID: 15098729 04/22/2004       43 Citations
  • Low CA1 spine synapse density is further reduced by castration in male non-human primates. (Leranth C, Prange-Kiel J, Frick KM, Horvath TL) Cereb Cortex 2004 May;14(5):503-10 PMID: 15054066 04/01/2004       57 Citations
  • Sex differences in the behavioral response to spatial and object novelty in adult C57BL/6 mice. (Frick KM, Gresack JE) Behav Neurosci 2003 Dec;117(6):1283-91 PMID: 14674847 12/17/2003       113 Citations
  • Male mice exhibit better spatial working and reference memory than females in a water-escape radial arm maze task. (Gresack JE, Frick KM) Brain Res 2003 Aug 22;982(1):98-107 PMID: 12915244 08/14/2003       56 Citations
  • Effects of environmental enrichment on spatial memory and neurochemistry in middle-aged mice. (Frick KM, Stearns NA, Pan JY, Berger-Sweeney J) Learn Mem 2003 May-Jun;10(3):187-98 PMID: 12773583 PMCID: PMC202309 05/30/2003       109 Citations
  • Enrichment enhances spatial memory and increases synaptophysin levels in aged female mice. (Frick KM, Fernandez SM) Neurobiol Aging 2003 Jul-Aug;24(4):615-26 PMID: 12714119 04/26/2003       202 Citations
  • Estrogen replacement improves spatial reference memory and increases hippocampal synaptophysin in aged female mice. (Frick KM, Fernandez SM, Bulinski SC) Neuroscience 2002;115(2):547-58 PMID: 12421621 11/08/2002       171 Citations
  • Sex differences in neurochemical markers that correlate with behavior in aging mice. (Frick KM, Burlingame LA, Delaney SS, Berger-Sweeney J) Neurobiol Aging 2002 Jan-Feb;23(1):145-58 PMID: 11755029 01/05/2002       31 Citations
  • Spatial reference memory and neocortical neurochemistry vary with the estrous cycle in C57BL/6 mice. (Frick KM, Berger-Sweeney J) Behav Neurosci 2001 Feb;115(1):229-37 PMID: 11256446 03/21/2001    
  • Cholinergic basal forebrain is critical for social transmission of food preferences. (Berger-Sweeney J, Stearns NA, Frick KM, Beard B, Baxter MG) Hippocampus 2000;10(6):729-38 PMID: 11153718 01/12/2001       55 Citations
  • Mice are not little rats: species differences in a one-day water maze task. (Frick KM, Stillner ET, Berger-Sweeney J) Neuroreport 2000 Nov 09;11(16):3461-5 PMID: 11095500 11/30/2000       106 Citations
  • Reference memory, anxiety and estrous cyclicity in C57BL/6NIA mice are affected by age and sex. (Frick KM, Burlingame LA, Arters JA, Berger-Sweeney J) Neuroscience 2000;95(1):293-307 PMID: 10619486 01/05/2000       168 Citations
  • Presynaptic markers of cholinergic function in the rat brain: relationship with age and cognitive status. (Baxter MG, Frick KM, Price DL, Breckler SJ, Markowska AL, Gorman LK) Neuroscience 1999 Mar;89(3):771-9 PMID: 10199612 04/13/1999       50 Citations
  • The effects of nerve growth factor on spatial recent memory in aged rats persist after discontinuation of treatment. (Frick KM, Price DL, Koliatsos VE, Markowska AL) J Neurosci 1997 Apr 01;17(7):2543-50 PMID: 9065514 04/01/1997       43 Citations
  • Oxotremorine infusions into the medial septal area of middle-aged rats affect spatial reference memory and ChAT activity. (Frick KM, Gorman LK, Markowska AL) Behav Brain Res 1996 Oct;80(1-2):99-109 PMID: 8905133 10/01/1996       27 Citations
  • Age-related spatial reference and working memory deficits assessed in the water maze. (Frick KM, Baxter MG, Markowska AL, Olton DS, Price DL) Neurobiol Aging 1995 Mar-Apr;16(2):149-60 PMID: 7777133 03/01/1995       255 Citations
  • D-cycloserine, a novel cognitive enhancer, improves spatial memory in aged rats. (Baxter MG, Lanthorn TH, Frick KM, Golski S, Wan RQ, Olton DS) Neurobiol Aging 1994 Mar-Apr;15(2):207-13 PMID: 7838293 03/01/1994       110 Citations
  • Acetylcholine release in the hippocampus: effects of cholinergic and GABAergic compounds in the medial septal area. (Gorman LK, Pang K, Frick KM, Givens B, Olton DS) Neurosci Lett 1994 Jan 31;166(2):199-202 PMID: 8177500 01/31/1994       55 Citations
  • Last update: 01/02/2019
    jenkins-FCD Prod-300 626508253d14e4184314fb9f66322a03a5906796