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Comparison of the systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions of desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane in the chronically instrumented dog. Anesthesiology 1991 Mar;74(3):539-51



Pubmed ID





The systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of desflurane were compared to those of isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane in chronically instrumented dogs. Since autonomic nervous system function may significantly influence the hemodynamic actions of anesthetics in vivo, a series of experiments also was performed in the presence of pharmacologic blockade of the autonomic nervous system. Eight groups comprising a total of 80 experiments were performed on 10 dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular pressure, the peak rate of increase of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt), subendocardial segment length, coronary blood flow velocity, and cardiac output. Systemic and coronary hemodynamics were recorded in the conscious state and after 30 min equilibration at 1.25 and 1.75 MAC desflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and enflurane. Desflurane (+79 +/- 12% change from control) produced greater increases in heart rate than did halothane (+44 +/- 12% change from control) or enflurane (+44 +/- 9% change from control) at 1.75 MAC. Desflurane preserved mean arterial pressure to a greater degree than did equianesthetic concentrations of isoflurane. This result was attributed to a smaller effect on peripheral vascular resistance as compared to isoflurane and greater preservation of myocardial contractility as evaluated by peak positive left ventricular dP/dt and the rate of increase of ventricular pressure at 50 mmHg (dP/dt50) compared to other volatile anesthetics. Increases in diastolic coronary blood flow velocity (+19 +/- 6 and +35 +/- 12% change from control at 1.75 MAC, respectively) and concomitant decreases in diastolic coronary vascular resistance (-41 +/- 12 and -58 +/- 6% change from control at 1.75 MAC, respectively) were produced by desflurane and isoflurane. In the presence of autonomic nervous system blockade, the actions of desflurane and isoflurane were nearly identical with the exception of coronary vasodilation. After autonomic nervous system blockade, isoflurane increased coronary blood flow velocity, but desflurane did not. Furthermore, both desflurane and isoflurane continued to produce less depression of myocardial contractility than did halothane and enflurane. In summary, at equianesthetic concentrations, desflurane and isoflurane produced similar hemodynamic effects; however, in the absence of drugs that inhibit autonomic reflexes, desflurane had less negative inotropic activity and produced less decrease in arterial pressure. The coronary vasodilator actions of desflurane and isoflurane within the limitations of this model were not similar. When the increase in heart rate and rate-pressure product produced by desflurane were prevented in dogs with autonomic nervous system blockade, desflurane produced no change in coronary blood flow velocity.

Author List

Pagel PS, Kampine JP, Schmeling WT, Warltier DC


Paul S. Pagel MD, PhD Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Autonomic Nerve Block
Coronary Circulation
Depression, Chemical
Myocardial Contraction
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