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The Gene Ontology: enhancements for 2011. Nucleic Acids Res 2012 Jan;40(Database issue):D559-64 PMID: 22102568 PMCID: PMC3245151

Pubmed ID





The Gene Ontology (GO) ( is a community bioinformatics resource that represents gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. The number of GO annotations of gene products has increased due to curation efforts among GO Consortium (GOC) groups, including focused literature-based annotation and ortholog-based functional inference. The GO ontologies continue to expand and improve as a result of targeted ontology development, including the introduction of computable logical definitions and development of new tools for the streamlined addition of terms to the ontology. The GOC continues to support its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources.

Author List

Gene Ontology Consortium


Melinda R. Dwinell PhD Center Associate Director, Associate Professor in the Physiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mary E. Shimoyama PhD Associate Professor in the Biomedical Engineering department at Medical College of Wisconsin


2-s2.0-84859699831   166 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Databases, Genetic
Molecular Sequence Annotation
Quality Control
Vocabulary, Controlled
jenkins-FCD Prod-331 a335b1a6d1e9c32173c9534e6f6ff51494143916