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Longitudinal effects of depression on glycemic control in veterans with Type 2 diabetes. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2008 Nov-Dec;30(6):509-14 PMID: 19061676

Pubmed ID

19061676

DOI

10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.07.001

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal effects of depression on glycemic control in veterans with Type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Data on 11,525 veterans with Type 2 diabetes were analyzed. A person-period dataset for each subject to cover 3-month intervals (36 time intervals) from April 1997 to March 2006 was created. Subjects were classified as depressed based on ICD-9 codes for depression. General linear mixed model regression was used to examine changes over time in HbA(1c) levels and whether the changes from baseline were different in depressed and nondepressed diabetic veterans, sequentially adjusting for baseline age, demographic variables and comorbidities (coronary heart disease, stroke and hypertension). Pooled t-tests were used to compare unadjusted mean HbA(1c) at each time point across the depressed and nondepressed groups. SAS was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent were men, 48% were white, 27% were blacks and 25% were other. Mean age was 66 years and mean follow-up period was 4.1 years. Six percent (696/11,525) of the sample had diagnosed depression. Unadjusted mean HbA(1c) values were significantly higher in depressed vs. nondepressed subjects at all time points. The adjusted mean HbA(1c) values over time in the final mixed model were significantly higher in depressed vs. nondepressed subjects (mean difference of 0.13; 95% CI [0.03; 0.22]; P=.008). In all adjusted models, differences in mean HbA(1c) values were significantly higher in depressed vs. nondepressed subjects with Type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSION: This study of veterans with Type 2 diabetes demonstrates that there is a significant longitudinal relationship between depression and glycemic control as measured by HbA(1c) and that depression is associated with persistently higher HbA(1c) levels over time.

Author List

Richardson LK, Egede LE, Mueller M, Echols CL, Gebregziabher M

Author

Leonard E. Egede MD Center Director, Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




Scopus

2-s2.0-54349102478   89 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Aged
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Female
Glycated Hemoglobin A
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Veterans
jenkins-FCD Prod-353 9ccd8489072cb19f5b9f808bb23ed672c582f41e