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Upper extremity inverse dynamics model for crutch-assisted gait assessment. J Biomech 2010 Jul 20;43(10):2026-31 PMID: 20403602

Pubmed ID



Current inverse dynamics models of the upper extremity (UE) are limited for the measurement of Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait. The objective of this study is to develop, validate, and demonstrate a three-dimensional (3-D) UE motion assessment system to quantify crutch-assisted gait in children. We propose a novel 3-D dynamic model of the UEs and crutches for quantification of joint motions, forces, and moments during Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait. The model is composed of the upper body (i.e., thorax, upper arms, forearms, and hands) and Lofstrand crutches to determine joint dynamics of the thorax, shoulders, elbows, wrists, and crutches. The model was evaluated and applied to a pediatric subject with myelomeningocele (MM) to demonstrate its effectiveness in the characterization of crutch gait during multiple walking patterns. The model quantified UE dynamics during reciprocal and swing-through crutch-assisted gait patterns. Joint motions and forces were greater during swing-through gait than reciprocal gait. The model is suitable for further application to pediatric crutch-user populations. This study has potential for improving the understanding of the biomechanics of crutch-assisted gait and may impact clinical intervention strategies and therapeutic planning of ambulation.

Author List

Slavens BA, Sturm PF, Harris GF


Gerald Harris PhD Director in the Orthopaedic Research Engineering Center (OREC) department at Marquette University
Brooke Slavens BS,MS,PhD Assistant Professor in the Occupational Science & Technology department at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee


2-s2.0-77954145842   22 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Biomechanical Phenomena
Gait Disorders, Neurologic
Upper Extremity
jenkins-FCD Prod-300 626508253d14e4184314fb9f66322a03a5906796