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Detection and characterization of the product of hydroethidine and intracellular superoxide by HPLC and limitations of fluorescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Apr 19;102(16):5727-32



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-17644394600   430 Citations


Here we report the structural characterization of the product formed from the reaction between hydroethidine (HE) and superoxide (O(2)(.-)). By using mass spectral and NMR techniques, the chemical structure of this product was determined as 2-hydroxyethidium (2-OH-E(+)). By using an authentic standard, we developed an HPLC approach to detect and quantitate the reaction product of HE and O(2)(.-) formed in bovine aortic endothelial cells after treatment with menadione or antimycin A to induce intracellular reactive oxygen species. Concomitantly, we used a spin trap, 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (BMPO), to detect and identify the structure of reactive oxygen species formed. BMPO trapped the O(2)(.-) that formed extracellularly and was detected as the BMPO-OH adduct during use of the EPR technique. BMPO, being cell-permeable, inhibited the intracellular formation of 2-OH-E(+). However, the intracellular BMPO spin adduct was not detected. The definitive characterization of the reaction product of O(2)(.-) with HE described here forms the basis of an unambiguous assay for intracellular detection and quantitation of O(2)(.-). Analysis of the fluorescence characteristics of ethidium (E(+)) and 2-OH-E(+) strongly suggests that the currently available fluorescence methodology is not suitable for quantitating intracellular O(2)(.-). We conclude that the HPLC/fluorescence assay using HE as a probe is more suitable [corrected] for detecting intracellular O(2)(.-).

Author List

Zhao H, Joseph J, Fales HM, Sokoloski EA, Levine RL, Vasquez-Vivar J, Kalyanaraman B


Balaraman Kalyanaraman PhD Chair, Professor in the Biophysics department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Jeannette M. Vasquez-Vivar PhD Professor in the Biophysics department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Biological Assay
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cyclic N-Oxides
Endothelial Cells
Fluorescent Dyes
Molecular Structure
Reactive Oxygen Species
Spin Trapping
Vitamin K 3
jenkins-FCD Prod-467 7c8a156729bba74d775d9c546792cde315827259