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Characterization of a first-pass gradient-echo spin-echo method to predict brain tumor grade and angiogenesis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004 Oct;25(9):1524-32 PMID: 15502131

Pubmed ID



BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No widespread clinical method provides specific information about the angiogenic characteristics of gliomas. We characterized blood volume and vascular morphologic parameters from combined gradient-echo (GE) and spin-echo (SE) MR imaging and assessed their relationship to tumor grade, a known correlate of glioma angiogenesis.

METHODS: Simultaneous GE and SE echo-planar imaging was performed with bolus gadolinium administration (0.20-0.25 mmol/kg) in 73 patients with glioma. To diminish possible T1 changes due to contrast agent extravasation, a preload (0.05-0.10 mmol/kg) was administered before the study, and a postprocessing correction algorithm was applied. Image maps of total (GE) and microvascular (SE) relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and the mean vessel diameter (mVD) calculated from the ratio of GE and SE relaxation rate changes (DeltaR2*/DeltaR2) were compared with tumor grade. A nonparametric K nearest-neighbor decision rule was applied to determine if the combined data could be used to distinguish low-grade (I-II) from high-grade (III-IV) tumors on a per-patient basis.

RESULTS: For whole tumors, significant correlations were found between GE rCBV and grade (P < .0001) and between mVD and grade (P = .0001) but not between SE rCBV and grade (P = .08). For areas of highest SE rCBV (microvascular hotspots), SE rCBV and tumor grade were significantly correlated (P = .0007). In terms of differentiation, 69% of low-grade tumors and 96% of high-grade tumors were correctly classified.

CONCLUSION: Combined GE and SE MR imaging provides information consistent with neoplastic angiogenesis, demonstrating its potential to aid in optimizing treatments, categorizing lesions, and influencing patient care.

Author List

Schmainda KM, Rand SD, Joseph AM, Lund R, Ward BD, Pathak AP, Ulmer JL, Badruddoja MA, Krouwer HG


Scott D. Rand MD, PhD Professor in the Radiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Kathleen M. Schmainda PhD Professor in the Radiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin


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MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Aged, 80 and over
Blood Volume
Brain Neoplasms
Contrast Media
Echo-Planar Imaging
Gadolinium DTPA
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Neovascularization, Pathologic
jenkins-FCD Prod-256 97250b83e4554f37bec91ca291f44ff4aedcc508