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Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia. Am J Hematol 2014 Oct;89(10):E188-92 PMID: 25042018 PMCID: PMC4261188

Pubmed ID

25042018

DOI

10.1002/ajh.23805

Abstract

Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child's academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable; 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students' mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5-15) with 52.2% male; 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P < 0.001), and male gender (OR, 2.2; P = 0.001) were associated with grade retention; silent cerebral infarct (P = 0.31) and painful episodes (P = 0.60) were not. Among students with sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia.

Author List

King AA, Rodeghier MJ, Panepinto JA, Strouse JJ, Casella JF, Quinn CT, Dowling MM, Sarnaik SA, Thompson AA, Woods GM, Minniti CP, Redding-Lallinger RC, Kirby-Allen M, Kirkham FJ, McKinstry R, Noetzel MJ, White DA, Kwiatkowski JK, Howard TH, Kalinyak KA, Inusa B, Rhodes MM, Heiny ME, Fuh B, Fixler JM, Gordon MO, DeBaun MR

Author

Julie A. Panepinto MD, MSPH Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin




Scopus

2-s2.0-84908049678   24 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adolescent
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Cerebral Infarction
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Humans
Male
Models, Biological
United States
jenkins-FCD Prod-310 bff9d975ec7f2d302586822146c2801dd4449aad