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Myeloablative Versus Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes. J Clin Oncol 2017 Apr 10;35(11):1154-1161 PMID: 28380315 PMCID: PMC5455603

Pubmed ID

28380315

Abstract

Purpose The optimal regimen intensity before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. We hypothesized that lower treatment-related mortality (TRM) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) would result in improved overall survival (OS) compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC). To test this hypothesis, we performed a phase III randomized trial comparing MAC with RIC in patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. Patients and Methods Patients age 18 to 65 years with HCT comorbidity index ≤ 4 and < 5% marrow myeloblasts pre-HCT were randomly assigned to receive MAC (n = 135) or RIC (n = 137) followed by HCT from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors. The primary end point was OS 18 months post-random assignment based on an intent-to-treat analysis. Secondary end points included relapse-free survival (RFS) and TRM. Results Planned enrollment was 356 patients; accrual ceased at 272 because of high relapse incidence with RIC versus MAC (48.3%; 95% CI, 39.6% to 56.4% and 13.5%; 95% CI, 8.3% to 19.8%, respectively; P < .001). At 18 months, OS for patients in the RIC arm was 67.7% (95% CI, 59.1% to 74.9%) versus 77.5% (95% CI, 69.4% to 83.7%) for those in the MAC arm (difference, 9.8%; 95% CI, -0.8% to 20.3%; P = .07). TRM with RIC was 4.4% (95% CI, 1.8% to 8.9%) versus 15.8% (95% CI, 10.2% to 22.5%) with MAC ( P = .002). RFS with RIC was 47.3% (95% CI, 38.7% to 55.4%) versus 67.8% (95% CI, 59.1% to 75%) with MAC ( P < .01). Conclusion OS was higher with MAC, but this was not statistically significant. RIC resulted in lower TRM but higher relapse rates compared with MAC, with a statistically significant advantage in RFS with MAC. These data support the use of MAC as the standard of care for fit patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes.

Author List

Scott BL, Pasquini MC, Logan BR, Wu J, Devine SM, Porter DL, Maziarz RT, Warlick ED, Fernandez HF, Alyea EP, Hamadani M, Bashey A, Giralt S, Geller NL, Leifer E, Le-Rademacher J, Mendizabal AM, Horowitz MM, Deeg HJ, Horwitz ME

Authors

Mehdi H. Hamadani MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mary M. Horowitz MD, MS Center Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Brent R. Logan PhD Director, Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Marcelo C. Pasquini MD, MS Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




Scopus

2-s2.0-85017300040   86 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adult
Aged
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Busulfan
Cause of Death
Cyclosporine
Disease-Free Survival
Female
Graft vs Host Disease
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Humans
Immunosuppressive Agents
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Male
Melphalan
Middle Aged
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Recurrence
Survival Rate
Transplantation Conditioning
Transplantation, Homologous
Vidarabine
Whole-Body Irradiation
Young Adult
jenkins-FCD Prod-299 9ef562391eceb2b8f95265c767fbba1ce5a52fd6