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Characterization and mechanisms of the supragastric belch in the cat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2017 Sep 01;313(3):G220-G229

Date

06/18/2017

Pubmed ID

28619729

Pubmed Central ID

PMC5625134

DOI

10.1152/ajpgi.00142.2017

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85028774277   1 Citation

Abstract

A response in which a belch occurs without gastric involvement, i.e., the supragastric belch (SGB), has been characterized in humans. The aims of this study were to determine whether animals have an SGB and, if so, to determine its mechanisms. Studies were conducted in decerebrate cats ( = 30) with electromyographic electrodes on hyoid, pharyngeal, esophageal, and diaphragm muscles. The effects of distending different regions of the esophagus in different manners using a balloon were quantified to determine the most appropriate stimulus for activating the cat SGB. The effects of esophageal perfusion of lidocaine ( = 3), vagus nerve transection ( = 3), or esophageal acidification ( = 5) on activation of the SGB were determined. Rapid large distensions of the thoracic esophagus best activated responses similar to the human SGB, i.e., rapid inhalation followed by a belch. The rapid inhalation was associated with activation of hiatal fibers and the belch with activation of dome fibers of the diaphragm. The rapid inhalation response was independent of the belch response. Lidocaine perfusion of the esophagus blocked the belch response without blocking the rapid inhalation, HCl perfusion sensitized the esophagus to activation of both the rapid inhalation and the belch response, and vagotomy blocked both responses. We conclude that the cat has an SGB that is composed of two independent reflex responses, i.e., rapid inhalation and belch, that are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. We hypothesize that the SGB is a learned voluntarily activated reflex response. Rapid strong distension of the thoracic esophagus activates rapid inhalation followed by a belch, which is the sequence of responses that compose the human supragastric belch (SGB). The rapid inhalation and belch phases of the cat SGB are activated by hiatal and dome fibers of the diaphragm, respectively, and are mediated by the vagus nerves and tension/mucosal receptors of the esophagus and sensitized by esophageal acid exposure. There are many similarities between the cat and human SGB.

Author List

Lang IM, Medda BK, Shaker R

Authors

Ivan M. Lang DVM, PhD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Bidyut K. Medda PhD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Reza Shaker MD Assoc Provost, Sr Assoc Dean, Ctr Dir, Chief, Prof in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anesthetics, Local
Animals
Cats
Eructation
Esophagus
Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lidocaine
Vagotomy
jenkins-FCD Prod-411 e00897e83867fcfa48419861683711f8d99adb75