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Autologous/Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation versus Tandem Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma: Comparison of Long-Term Postrelapse Survival. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Mar;24(3):478-485 PMID: 29079457 PMCID: PMC5826888

Pubmed ID

29079457

Abstract

We compared postrelapse overall survival (OS) after autologous/allogeneic (auto/allo) versus tandem autologous (auto/auto) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Postrelapse survival of patients receiving an auto/auto or auto/allo HCT for MM and prospectively reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Relapse occurred in 404 patients (72.4%) in the auto/auto group and in 178 patients (67.4%) in the auto/allo group after a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Relapse occurred before 6 months after a second HCT in 46% of the auto/allo patients, compared with 26% of the auto/auto patients. The 6-year postrelapse survival was better in the auto/allo group compared with the auto/auto group (44% versus 35%; P = .05). Mortality due to MM was 69% (n = 101) in the auto/allo group and 83% (n = 229) deaths in auto/auto group. In multivariate analysis, both cohorts had a similar risk of death in the first year after relapse (hazard ratio [HR], .72; P = .12); however, for time points beyond 12 months after relapse, overall survival was superior in the auto/allo cohort (HR for death in auto/auto =1.55; P = .005). Other factors associated with superior survival were enrollment in a clinical trial for HCT, male sex, and use of novel agents at induction before HCT. Our findings shown superior survival afterrelapse in auto/allo HCT recipients compared with auto/auto HCT recipients. This likely reflects a better response to salvage therapy, such as immunomodulatory drugs, potentiated by a donor-derived immunologic milieu. Further augmentation of the post-allo-HCT immune system with new immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, and others, merit investigation.

Author List

Htut M, D'Souza A, Krishnan A, Bruno B, Zhang MJ, Fei M, Diaz MA, Copelan E, Ganguly S, Hamadani M, Kharfan-Dabaja M, Lazarus H, Lee C, Meehan K, Nishihori T, Saad A, Seo S, Ramanathan M, Usmani SZ, Gasparetto C, Mark TM, Nieto Y, Hari P

Authors

Anita D'Souza MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mehdi H. Hamadani MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Parameswaran Hari MD Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mei-Jie Zhang PhD Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin




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