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Pentamidine: a review. Rev Infect Dis 1985 Sep-Oct;7(5):625-34

Date

09/01/1985

Pubmed ID

3903942

DOI

10.1093/clinids/7.5.625

Abstract

Pentamidine, recently released for clinical use, is effective in therapy for the hemolymphatic stage of Gambian trypanosomiasis, antimony-resistant leishmaniasis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The mechanism of action is unclear and may differ for different organisms. Trypanosomes actively transport pentamidine intracellularly, and the drug may then interfere with DNA biosynthetics. However, pentamidine appears to kill nonreplicating P. carinii. The mechanism of killing is unexplained. The pharmacokinetics of pentamidine has been incompletely studied in humans. The estimated volume of distribution is 3 liters/kg. Levels in plasma of pentamidine range from 0.3-1.4 microgram/ml after standard 4 mg/kg dosing, with no appreciable increase in drug levels on successive dosing and no correlation between levels and creatinine clearance or adverse reactions. The drug appears to be concentrated in the kidney and excreted in the urine, with levels detectable six to eight weeks after cessation of therapy. Immediate adverse reactions have included hypotension, nausea, and vomiting. Local pain or abscess formation at an injection site, mild azotemia, leukopenia, abnormal findings from liver function tests, and hypoglycemia may also occur.

Author List

Sands M, Kron MA, Brown RB

Author

Michael Kron MD Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Amidines
Animals
Babesiosis
Clinical Trials as Topic
Disease Models, Animal
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Humans
In Vitro Techniques
Kidney
Kinetics
Leishmaniasis
Pentamidine
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
Trypanosomiasis, African
jenkins-FCD Prod-388 89e904233d719332173309c68ab82b0b2a78a3a7