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Regional variation in myocardial water content in the edematous pig heart. J Surg Res 2002 Jul;106(1):70-5



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-0036374141   7 Citations


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine regional variation in myocardial water content (%MWC) throughout the iatrogenically edematous pig heart.

METHODS: Edema was induced by hemodilution in domestic swine (n = 26). Hearts were arrested with potassium chloride. The left ventricular free wall (LVFW), interventricular septum (IVS), and right ventricular free wall (RVFW) were biopsied at the apex, base, and equator. Full-thickness biopsy (Full, 0.5-1 g) and subendocardial (Endo, 0.1-0.2 g) biopsies were removed from each region. %MWC was determined for each biopsy.

RESULTS: The %MWC for all hearts were as follows: Endo, 81.1 +/- 0.1, and Full, 80.6 +/- 0.1* (*P < 0.02); apex, 81.1 +/- 0.2*, equator, 80.7 +/- 0.2, and base, 80.4 +/- 0.2 (*P < 0.02); RVFW, 81.4 +/- 0.3*, IVS, 80.8 +/- 0.2*, and LVFW, 80.3 +/- 0.1* (*P < 0.02). For 18 hearts with LV samples with average %MWC >or= 80%, the percentages were apex, 81.4 +/- 0.2*, equator, 81.0 +/- 0.2*, and base, 80.6 +/- 0.2* (*P < 0.02) (repeated measures, ANOVA).

CONCLUSION: In the iatrogenically edematous porcine heart, a significant water gradient exists, with Endo > Full, apex > equator > base, and RVFW > IVS > LVFW. These results indicate that when examining edema, consistent biopsy results depend on a reproducible sampling site. Water content tends to be highest in thin-walled portions of the heart, suggesting that contractile force may be important in the distribution of edema.

Author List

Jia CX, Rabkin DG, Hart JP, Dean DA, Cabreriza SA, Weinberg AD, Spotnitz HM


Joseph Hart MD Associate Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Edema, Cardiac
Heart Septum
Iatrogenic Disease
Ventricular Function