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Keeping the "Human in the Loop" in the Age of Artificial Intelligence : Accompanying Commentary for "Correcting the Brain?" by Rainey and Erden. Sci Eng Ethics 2020 Oct;26(5):2455-2460



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85087695825 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   14 Citations


The benefits of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in medicine are unquestionable and it is unlikely that the pace of its development will slow down. From better diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention to more precise surgical procedures, AI has the potential to offer unique opportunities to enhance patient care and improve clinical practice overall. However, at this stage of AI technology development it is unclear whether it will de-humanize or re-humanize medicine. Will AI allow clinicians to spend less time on administrative tasks and technology related procedures and more time being present in person to attend to the needs of their patients? Or will AI dramatically increase the presence of smart technology in the clinical context to a point of undermining the humane dimension of the patient-physician relationship? In this brief commentary, we argue that technological solutions should be only integrated into clinical medicine if they fulfill the following three conditions: (1) they serve human ends; (2) they respect personal identity; and (3) they promote human interaction. These three conditions form the moral imperative of humanity.

Author List

Jotterand F, Bosco C


Fabrice Jotterand PhD Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Artificial Intelligence
Physician-Patient Relations