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Comparison of salvage chemotherapy regimens and prognostic significance of minimal residual disease in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jan;62(1):158-166



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85091139710   6 Citations


We compared the outcomes of salvage chemotherapy in 146 patients with relapsed (57.5%) or refractory (42.5%) AML who received CLAG-M (51%), MEC (39%) or CLAG (10%). Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by flow cytometry. Bivariate, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression analyses were conducted. Complete remission (CR) rate of 46% (CLAG-M 54% versus MEC/CLAG 40%, p = .045) was observed with MRD-negative CR of 33% (CLAG-M 39% versus MEC/CLAG 22%, p = .042). Median overall survival (OS) was 9.7 months; the longest OS occurred with CLAG-M (13.3, 95%CI 2.4-24.3) versus MEC (6.9, 95%CI 2.9-10.9) or CLAG (6.2, 95%CI 2.4-12.6) (p = .025). When adjusted for age, gender, relapsed/refractory AML, poor risk AML, MRD, chemotherapy and transplant, CLAG-M (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.98, p = .042), MRD-negativity (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07-0.30, p < .001) and transplant (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.39, p < .001) were associated with higher OS. Our findings confirm that CLAG-M is a reasonable salvage regimen for RR-AML followed by transplant.

Author List

Mushtaq MU, Harrington AM, Chaudhary SG, Michaelis LC, Carlson KB, Abedin S, Runass L, Callander NS, Fallon MJ, Juckett M, Hall AC, Hematti P, Mattison RJ, Atallah EL, Guru Murthy GS


Sameem Abedin MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Ehab L. Atallah MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Alexandra M. Harrington MD Professor in the Pathology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Neoplasm, Residual
Remission Induction
Salvage Therapy