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Rationale and methods of the Advanced R2Eperfusion STrategies for Refractory Cardiac Arrest (ARREST) trial. Am Heart J 2020 Nov;229:29-39



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85090331289 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   11 Citations


BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has emerged as a prominent therapy for patients with refractory cardiac arrest. However, the optimal time of initiation remains unknown.

AIM: The aim was to assess the rate of survival to hospital discharge in adult patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated with 1 of 2 local standards of care: (1) early venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-facilitated resuscitation for circulatory support and percutaneous coronary intervention, when needed, or (2) standard advanced cardiac life support resuscitation.

DESIGN: Phase II, single-center, partially blinded, prospective, intention-to-treat, safety and efficacy clinical trial.

POPULATION: Adults (aged 18-75), initial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rhythm of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia, no ROSC following 3 shocks, body morphology to accommodate a Lund University Cardiac Arrest System automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation device, and transfer time of <30 minutes.

SETTING: Hospital-based.

OUTCOMES: Primary: survival to hospital discharge. Secondary: safety, survival, and functional assessment at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months, and cost.

SAMPLE SIZE: Assuming success rates of 12% versus 37% in the 2 arms and 90% power, a type 1 error rate of .05, and a 15% rate of withdrawal prior to hospital discharge, the required sample size is N = 174 evaluated patients.

CONCLUSIONS: The ARREST trial will generate safety/effectiveness data and comparative costs associated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation, informing broader implementation and a definitive Phase III clinical trial.

Author List

Yannopoulos D, Kalra R, Kosmopoulos M, Walser E, Bartos JA, Murray TA, Connett JE, Aufderheide TP


Tom P. Aufderheide MD Professor in the Emergency Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Intention to Treat Analysis
Middle Aged
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Patient Discharge
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Survival Analysis
Treatment Outcome
Ventricular Fibrillation