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Ambient exposure of O3 and NO2 and associated health risk in Kuwait. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar;28(12):14917-14926



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85096372406 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)   14 Citations


Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), indissoluble air pollutants in the atmosphere, have been confirmed in various parts of the world to have detrimental health effects on humans. Currently, such information is lacking in Kuwait. The objectives of this study are to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of O3 and NO2 concentrations in Kuwait during a 4-year period (2014-2017) and to quantify the associated short- and long-term health effects, including all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortalities and morbidities during the same study period. Exposure assessment showed that the annual levels (22.5-26.4 ppb), SOMO35, and the 8-hour 4-year mean (38 ppb) of O3 were very low and below the World Health Organization (WHO) (50 ppb) and Kuwaiti (70 ppb) regulatory limits. The annual mean levels of NO2 ranged from 30.3 to 43.8 ppb and were significantly higher than both WHO and Kuwait limits (21 ppb). As expected, O3 and NO2 levels showed opposing trends, with higher concentrations of NO2 recorded in early morning and mid-evening, during autumn and winter, and during Saturdays (the so-called weekend effect). Health effects indicated high respiratory diseases due to short-term exposure to NO2. Contrary to the western countries' pollution levels, Kuwait showed lower O3 and higher NO2 levels. There is potential for substantial health improvements in Kuwait by reducing NO2 pollution through stringent control measures of stationary and mobile sources.

Author List

Al-Hemoud A, Gasana J, Alajeel A, Alhamoud E, Al-Shatti A, Al-Khayat A


Janvier Gasana MD, MPH, PhD Adjunct Associate Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Air Pollutants
Air Pollution
Nitrogen Dioxide