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Relationship between mental health diagnoses and COVID-19 test positivity, hospitalization, and mortality in Southeast Wisconsin. Psychol Med 2021 May 26:1-9

Date

05/27/2021

Pubmed ID

34034845

Pubmed Central ID

PMC8185414

DOI

10.1017/S0033291721002312

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85107051414   5 Citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature on the relationship between pre-existing mental health conditions and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. The aim was to examine the association between pre-existing mental health diagnosis and COVID-19 outcomes (positive screen, hospitalization, mortality).

METHODS: Electronic medical record data for 30 976 adults tested for COVID-19 between March 2020 and 10th July 2020 was analyzed. COVID-19 outcomes included positive screen, hospitalization among screened positive, and mortality among screened positive and hospitalized. Primary independent variable, mental health disorders, was based on ICD-10 codes categorized as bipolar, internalizing, externalizing, and psychoses. Descriptive statistics were calculated, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the relationship between each mental health disorder and COVID-19 outcomes.

RESULTS: Adults with externalizing (odds ratio (OR) 0.67, 95%CI 0.57-0.79) and internalizing disorders (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70-0.88) had lower odds of having a positive COVID-19 test in fully adjusted models. Adults with bipolar disorder had significantly higher odds of hospitalization in fully adjusted models (OR 4.27, 95% CI 2.06-8.86), and odds of hospitalization were significantly higher among those with externalizing disorders after adjusting for demographics (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.38). Mortality was significantly higher in the fully adjusted model for patients with bipolar disorder (hazard ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.07-6.67).

CONCLUSIONS: Adults with mental health disorders, while less likely to test positive for COVID-19, were more likely to be hospitalized and to die in the hospital. Study results suggest the importance of developing interventions that incorporate elements designed to address smoking cessation, nutrition and physical activity counseling and other needs specific to this population to improve COVID-19 outcomes.

Author List

Egede C, Dawson AZ, Walker RJ, Garacci E, Campbell JA, Egede LE

Authors

Jennifer Annette Campbell PhD, MPH Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Aprill Z. Dawson PhD, MPH Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Leonard E. Egede MD Center Director, Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Rebekah Walker PhD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin