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Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Associated With Anterior Skull Base Actinomyces Osteomyelitis in a Pediatric Patient With Type 1 Diabetes. Cureus 2022 Apr;14(4):e24311



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Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a fulminant, often fatal, angioinvasive fungal infection commonly transmitted through inhalation of fungal spores and traumatic inoculation. While the literature has documented rare cases of infection in immunocompetent patients, the vast majority of case fatalities are noted in immunosuppressed populations. Common predisposing factors to infection include immunosuppressive therapies, hematologic malignancies, and most notably, uncontrolled diabetes. Actinomycosis is a subacute to chronic bacterial infection stemming from non-spore-forming anaerobic/microaerophilic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Infection with Actinomyces species has been documented across numerous anatomical sites; however, literature on concurrent infection with ROCM in pediatric patients is sparse. We document a case of a 17-year-old male with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes who presented to the emergency department with combined ROCM and actinomycotic infection of his anterior skull base.

Author List

Conley W, Cox RE, Robey T


Thomas C. Robey MD Professor in the Otolaryngology department at Medical College of Wisconsin