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Evaluating the benefit of surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with multifocality or intrahepatic vascular invasion. HPB (Oxford) 2023 Jul;25(7):758-765



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85152942521 (requires institutional sign-in at Scopus site)


BACKGROUND: The role of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multifocality or intrahepatic vascular involvement remains ill-defined. Our objective was to evaluate benefits of surgical resection for patients with these high-risk features.

METHODS: The National Cancer Database was used to identify HCC patients with vascular involvement and/or multifocality (T2/T3, N-/M-) from 2011 to 2015. Propensity score matching (k-nearest neighbors, no replacement, 1:1) grouped patients by treatment: surgical resection versus non-surgical modalities. Groups were matched using patient, clinical, and liver-specific characteristics. Median overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier, and adjusted analyses were performed using shared frailty models.

RESULTS: 14,557 patients met inclusion criteria, including 1892 (9.4%) treated with surgical resection. Median cohort OS was 20.5 months. After adjustment, surgical resection was associated with survival advantage compared to non-surgical treatment (37.8 versus 15.7 months, log-rank P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.54). Patients with minimal comorbidity, unifocal disease, and age <54 had highest probability of survival one year post-surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is associated with a survival advantage in HCC with multifocality and/or intrahepatic vascular involvement. The presence of these features should not contraindicate consideration of hepatectomy in suitable surgical candidates.

Author List

Kothari AN, Massarweh NN, Flitcroft MA, Newhook T, Tzeng CD, Chun YS, Kaseb AO, Vauthey JN, Tran Cao HS


Anai N. Kothari MD Assistant Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
Liver Neoplasms
Propensity Score
Retrospective Studies
Treatment Outcome