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A proximal strengthening program improves pain, function, and biomechanics in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am J Sports Med 2011 Jan;39(1):154-63



Pubmed ID





BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) have hip and core muscle weakness leading to dynamic malalignment of the lower extremity. Thus, hip strengthening is a common PFPS treatment approach.

PURPOSE: To determine changes in hip strength, core endurance, lower extremity biomechanics, and patient outcomes after proximally focused rehabilitation for PFPS patients.

STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

METHODS: Nineteen women (age, 22.68 ± 7.19 years; height, 1.64 ± 0.07 m; mass, 60.2 ± 7.35 kg) with PFPS participated in an 8-week program to strengthen the hip and core muscles and improve dynamic malalignment. Paired t tests were used to compare the dependent variables between prerehabilitation and postrehabilitation. The dependent variables were pain; functional ability; isometric hip abduction and external rotation strength; anterior, lateral, and posterior core endurance; joint range of motion (ROM; rearfoot eversion, knee abduction and internal rotation, and hip adduction and internal rotation); and peak internal joint moments (rearfoot inversion, knee abduction, and hip abduction and external rotation) during the stance phase of running.

RESULTS: Significant improvements in pain, functional ability, lateral core endurance, hip abduction, and hip external rotation strength were observed. There was also a significant reduction in the knee abduction moment during running, although there were no significant changes in joint ROM.

CONCLUSION: An 8-week rehabilitation program focusing on strengthening and improving neuromuscular control of the hip and core musculature produces positive patient outcomes, improves hip and core muscle strength, and reduces the knee abduction moment, which is associated with developing PFPS.

Author List

Earl JE, Hoch AZ


Anne Hoch DO Professor in the Orthopaedic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Exercise Therapy
Hip Joint
Knee Joint
Muscle Strength
Muscle, Skeletal
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Range of Motion, Articular
Young Adult