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Effect of education and language on baseline concussion screening tests in professional baseball players. Clin J Sport Med 2014 Jul;24(4):284-8



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84903790724   14 Citations


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of sociocultural influences, specifically pertaining to language and education, on baseline neuropsychological concussion testing as obtained via immediate postconcussion assessment and cognitive testing (ImPACT) of players from a professional baseball team.

DESIGN: A retrospective chart review.

SETTING: Baseline testing of a professional baseball organization.

PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred five professional baseball players.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Age, languages spoken, hometown country location (United States/Canada vs overseas), and years of education.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 5 ImPACT composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, impulse control) and ImPACT total symptom score from the initial baseline testing.

RESULTS: The result of t tests revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) when comparing native English to native Spanish speakers in many scores. Even when corrected for education, the significant differences (P < 0.05) remained in some scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Sociocultural differences may result in differences in computer-based neuropsychological testing scores.

Author List

Jones NS, Walter KD, Caplinger R, Wright D, Raasch WG, Young C


Kevin D. Walter MD Associate Professor in the Orthopaedic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Craig C. Young MD Professor in the Orthopaedic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Brain Concussion
Educational Status
Retrospective Studies
Sociological Factors