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Regulation of endothelial function by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Antioxid Redox Signal 2011 Sep 15;15(6):1517-30

Date

01/05/2011

Pubmed ID

21194353

Pubmed Central ID

PMC3151425

DOI

10.1089/ars.2010.3642

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-79955753583   103 Citations

Abstract

Mitochondria are well known for their central roles in ATP production, calcium homeostasis, and heme and steroid biosynthesis. However, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, once thought to be toxic byproducts of mitochondrial physiologic activities, have recently been recognized as important cell-signaling molecules in the vascular endothelium, where their production, conversion, and destruction are highly regulated. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species appear to regulate important vascular homeostatic functions under basal conditions in a variety of vascular beds, where, in particular, they contribute to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. On exposure to cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial mitochondria produce excessive ROS in concert with other cellular ROS sources. Mitochondrial ROS, in this setting, act as important signaling molecules activating prothrombotic and proinflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium, a process that initially manifests itself as endothelial dysfunction and, if persistent, may lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. This review concentrates on emerging appreciation of the importance of mitochondrial ROS as cell-signaling molecules in the vascular endothelium under both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Future potential avenues of research in this field also are discussed.

Author List

Widlansky ME, Gutterman DD

Authors

David D. Gutterman MD Sr Associate Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Michael E. Widlansky MD Associate Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Calcium
Electron Transport Complex I
Electron Transport Complex III
Endothelium, Vascular
Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors
Humans
Hydrogen Peroxide
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial
Mitochondria
Nitric Oxide
Oxidative Stress
Peroxidases
Signal Transduction
Superoxides
jenkins-FCD Prod-484 8aa07fc50b7f6d102f3dda2f4c7056ff84294d1d