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Microwave ablation for hepatic malignancies: a call for standard reporting and outcomes. Am J Surg 2014 Aug;208(2):284-94



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84905112564   19 Citations


BACKGROUND: Clinical standards of reporting microwave ablation outcomes have not been defined with regard to ablation success, 90-day morbidity, local recurrence after ablation, and nonablation hepatic recurrence. We propose recommendations for microwave ablation reporting and quality standards.

METHODS: Literature review of clinical studies focusing on microwave ablation of primary and metastatic hepatic tumors was reported.

RESULTS: Ablation success remains the highest quality reporting standard with variations in nomenclature, but with a universal agreement of complete destruction of the target lesion within 1 month after initial microwave ablation. Local recurrence after ablation remains highly variable, with reports as low as 2.2% to as high as 22%; standards lack a common, clearly defined distance from the initial target ablated lesion and the requirement that the target lesion be defined as an ablation success before it can be called a recurrence. Nonablation hepatic recurrence, nonhepatic recurrence, and 90-day morbidity and mortality remain limited in the current literature.

CONCLUSIONS: Standardization of hepatic microwave ablation reporting standards are proposed. Current reporting standards in microwave ablation of hepatic malignancies are suboptimal and lack standardization for comparison across institutions.

Author List

North DA, Groeschl RT, Sindram D, Martinie JB, Iannitti DA, Bloomston M, Schmidt C, Rilling WS, Gamblin TC, Martin RC


Thomas Clark Gamblin MD Chief, Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
William S. Rilling MD Vice Chair, Professor in the Radiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Carcinoma, Hepatocellular
Catheter Ablation
Liver Neoplasms
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Treatment Outcome
jenkins-FCD Prod-480 9a4deaf152b0b06dd18151814fff2e18f6c05280