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Rapid, accurate, and non-invasive measurement of zebrafish axial length and other eye dimensions using SD-OCT allows longitudinal analysis of myopia and emmetropization. PLoS One 2014;9(10):e110699



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84908190382   22 Citations


Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2=0.9548, R2=0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of -0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of -0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors.

Author List

Collery RF, Veth KN, Dubis AM, Carroll J, Link BA


Joseph J. Carroll PhD Director, Professor in the Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Ross F. Collery PhD Assistant Professor in the Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Brian A. Link PhD Professor in the Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Axial Length, Eye
Disease Models, Animal
Gene-Environment Interaction
Lens, Crystalline
Tomography, Optical Coherence
jenkins-FCD Prod-486 e3098984f26de787f5ecab75090d0a28e7f4f7c0