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Implementation of American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for palivizumab prophylaxis in a pediatric hospital. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2016 Mar 15;73(6):405-8



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84962669567   6 Citations


PURPOSE: One hospital's implementation of revised American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for palivizumab prophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is described.

METHODS: Revised AAP guidelines for RSV prophylaxis in infants and young children at increased risk for RSV infection recommend that up to five doses of palivizumab be administered during the RSV season. The guidelines also recommend that inpatients not receive monthly palivizumab prophylaxis and that infants and young children eligible for prophylaxis during the RSV season receive a dose of palivizumab two or three days before discharge or promptly after discharge. To ensure compliance with the revised AAP guidelines, a 296-bed hospital implemented a quality-improvement project including (1) efforts by the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist and the chief medical officer to notify and educate healthcare providers regarding institutional adoption of the guidelines, (2) reinforcement of guideline adherence by clinical pharmacists during daily bedside rounds and via prospective review of all palivizumab orders, and (3) a medication-use evaluation (MUE) to assess adherence to the guidelines. The MUE results showed that during the 2014-15 RSV season (after implementation of the practice changes), the number of palivizumab doses administered at the hospital declined by 56% from the previous RSV season, with 97% of doses administered for appropriate indications.

CONCLUSION: Standardized, comprehensive guidelines with defined criteria for palivizumab prophylaxis of RSV infection resulted in $303,227 of cost savings without a discernible change in nosocomial transmission, or morbidity, or mortality. Hospital infection-control practices controlled nosocomial RSV transmission.

Author List

Zembles TN, Gaertner KM, Gutzeit MF, Willoughby RE


Rodney E. Willoughby MD Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Antiviral Agents
Child, Preschool
Cross Infection
Hospitals, Pediatric
Infant, Newborn
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Societies, Medical
United States