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Quantitative estimation of a ratio of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid volume to brain volume based on segmentation of CT images in patients with extra-axial hematoma. Neuroradiol J 2017 Feb;30(1):10-14



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Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85011629114   6 Citations


Background Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. Objective The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma. Patients and methods In our retrospective study, we reviewed 113 patients with surgical extra-axial hematomas. We included 28 patients (age 61.7a??+/-a??17.7a??years; 19 males, nine females) with an acute epidural hematoma (EDH) ( na??=a??5) and subacute/chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) ( na??=a??23). We excluded 85 patients, in order, due to acute SDH ( na??=a??76), concurrent intraparenchymal pathology ( na??=a??6), and bilateral pathology ( na??=a??3). Noncontrast CT images of the head were obtained using a CT scanner (2004 GE LightSpeed VCT CT system, tube voltage 140 kVp, tube current 310 mA, 5a??mm section thickness) preoperatively, postoperatively (3.8a??A?a??5.8 hours from surgery), and at follow-up clinic visit (48.2a??A?a??27.7 days after surgery). Each CT scan was loaded into an OsiriX (Pixmeo, Switzerland) workstation to segment pixels based on radiodensity properties measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Based on HU values from -30 to 100, brain, CSF spaces, vascular structures, hematoma, and/or postsurgical fluid were segregated from bony structures, and subsequently hematoma and/or postsurgical fluid were manually selected and removed from the images. The remaining images represented overall brain volume-containing only CSF spaces, vascular structures, and brain parenchyma. Thereafter, the ratio between the total number of voxels representing CSF volume (based on values between 0 and 15 HU) to the total number of voxels representing overall brain volume was calculated. Results CSF/brain volume ratio varied significantly during the course of the disease, being the lowest preoperatively, 0.051a??A?a??0.032; higher after surgical evacuation of hematoma, 0.067a??A?a??0.040; and highest at follow-up visit, 0.083a??A?a??0.040 ( pa??<a??0.01). Using a repeated regression analysis, we found a significant association ( pa??<a??0.01) of the ratio with age (odds ratio, 1.019; 95% CI, 1.009-1.029) and type of hematoma (odds ratio, 0.405; 95% CI, 0.303-0.540). Conclusion CSF/brain volume ratio calculated from CT images has potential to reflect dynamics of intracranial volume changes in patients with space-occupying mass.

Author List

Nguyen HS, Patel M, Li L, Kurpad S, Mueller W


Shekar N. Kurpad MD, PhD Chair, Director, Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Wade M. Mueller MD Professor in the Neurosurgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Aged, 80 and over
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Glasgow Coma Scale
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Young Adult