Medical College of Wisconsin
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Outcome measures in facial plastic surgery: patient-reported and clinical efficacy measures. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2008 May-Jun;10(3):194-207



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OBJECTIVE: To survey the existing literature to identify, summarize, and evaluate procedure- and condition-specific outcome measures for use in facial plastic and reconstructive surgery.

METHODS: A review of the English-language literature was performed to identify outcomes instruments specific for targeted facial plastic surgery interventions and conditions. A search was performed using MEDLINE (1950 to September 2007), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health) (1982 to September 2007), and PsychINFO (1806 to September 2007). Outcomes instruments were categorized as patient-reported or clinical efficacy measures (observer-reported or objective measures). Instruments were then categorized to include relevant details on the intervention, degree of validation, and subsequent use.

RESULTS: Sixty-eight distinct instruments were identified (23 patient-reported, 35 observer-reported, and 10 objective measures), with some overlap among categories. Most patient-reported measures (76%) and half observer-reported instruments (51%) were developed in the past 10 years. The rigor of validation varied widely among measures, with formal validation being most common among the patient-reported outcome measures.

CONCLUSIONS: Validated outcomes measures are present for many common facial plastic surgery conditions and have become more prevalent during the past decade, especially for patient-reported outcomes. Challenges remain in harmonizing patient-reported, observer-based, and other objective measures to produce standardized clinically meaningful outcome measures.

Author List

Rhee JS, McMullin BT


John S. Rhee MD Chair, Professor in the Otolaryngology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
Treatment Outcome
jenkins-FCD Prod-486 e3098984f26de787f5ecab75090d0a28e7f4f7c0