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CURRICULUM VITAE

Nikki Johnston PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Otolaryngology

OFFICE ADDRESS:
Basic Science Building
8701 Watertown Plank Rd
Milwaukee, WI 53226

EDUCATION:
09/1995 - 06/1996 B.Sc. with honors in Anatomical Sciences, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, Dundee
09/1999 - 10/2002 Ph.D. in Molecular and Cellular Pathology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom, Dundee

POSTGRADUATE TRAINING AND FELLOWSHIP APPOINTMENTS:
01/2003 - 09/2003 Research Fellow, Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC

FACULTY APPOINTMENTS:
01/2003 - 09/2003 Research Assistant Professor, Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
05/2006 - Present Assistant Professor, Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
02/2014 - Present Associate Professor, Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, Research, Medical College of Wisconsin
06/2015 - Present Associate Professor, Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin

EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE APPOINTMENTS:
01/2009 - Present Education Coordinator, Otolaryngology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
07/2010 - Present Director of Airway, Digestive and Voice Research, Otolaryngology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI

AWARDS AND HONORS:
10/2002 Best Abstract and Travel Award, The Union of European Gastroenterology Week (Geneva, Switzerland)
09/2003 Key Not Presentation, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus (Paris, France)
07/2005 Best Abstract and Travel Award, The Union of European Gastroenterology Week (Copenhagen, Denmark)
05/2008 Broyles-Maloney Award, American Broncho-Esophagological Association (Orlando, Florida)
05/2009 Broyles-Maloney Award, American Broncho-Esophagological Association (Phoenix, Arizona)
03/2011 American Cancer Society / MCW Cancer Center Travel Award to Attend and Present, Annual AACR conference (Orlando, Florida)
06/2011 Marquis Who’s Who in Medicine and Healthcare 2012
01/2012 Marquis Who’s Who in America 2013
10/2012 2012 Faculty Service Award for service to the Faculty Council Committees of the MCW, Medical College of Wisconsin
03/2013 Charles Ferguson Clinical Research Prize, American Society of Paediatric Otolaryngology
04/2013 Broyles-Maloney Award, American Broncho-Esophagological Association (Orlando, Florida)

MEMBERSHIPS IN HONORARY AND PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES:
2005 - Present American Association for Cancer Research (Member)
2006 - Present Society for Bimolecular Sciences (Member)
2007 - Present Association for Research in Otolaryngology (Member)
2009 - Present American Broncho-Esophagological Association (Phoenix, Arizona) (Member)
2011 - Present Medical College of Wisconsin Cancer Center (Member)
2011 - Present Clinical and Translational Science Institute of Southeast Wisconsin (Member)

EDITORSHIPS/EDITORIAL BOARDS/JOURNAL REVIEWS:
Editorial Board
2011 - Present International Scholarly Research Network (ISRN) Otolaryngology Journal
2012 - Present Conference Papers in Medicine
2013 - Present Applied Scientific Reports
Journal Review
2008 - Present The American Journal of Gastroenterology
2008 - Present Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
2008 - Present Laryngoscope
2010 - Present European Respiratory Journal
2014 - Present The Lancet
2014 - Present Dysphagia
2016 - Present Cancer Medicine
2017 - Present Surgical Endoscopy
2017 - Present JAMA - Otolaryngology

LOCAL/REGIONAL APPOINTED LEADERSHIP AND COMMITTEE POSITIONS:
2007 - Present Member, Department of Otolaryngology Resident Research Committee, Medical College of Wisconsin
2008 - 2010 Scientific Advisor, Clinician/Scientist Scholars Program, Medical College of Wisconsin
2008 - Present Extended Service Member, Admissions Committee of the Faculty Council, Medical College of Wisconsin
2009 - Present Education Coordinator, Department of Otolaryngology Resident Research Committee, Medical College of Wisconsin
2009 - Present Chair, Department of Otolaryngology Resident Research Committee, Medical College of Wisconsin
2010 - Present Director, Airway, Digestive and Voice Research, Medical College of Wisconsin
2012 - Present Member, Community Medical Education Program Student Recruitment, Admissions and Support Work Group, Medical College of Wisconsin
2013 - Present Member, Head and Neck Faculty Disease Committee, Medical College of Wisconsin
2014 - Present MCW Milwaukee Faculty Member, Admissions - Green Bay, Medical College of Wisconsin

NATIONAL ELECTED/APPOINTED LEADERSHIP AND COMMITTEE POSITIONS:
2013 - Present Advisory Board, Voice Institute of New York Research Foundation

INTERNATIONAL ELECTED/APPOINTED LEADERSHIP AND COMMITTEE POSITIONS:
2011 - 2012 Vice Chair, Otolaryngology, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus
2014 - Present Member, Permanent Scientific Committee, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus
2015 - 2016 Chair, Airway Reflux, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus
2017 - 2018 Chair, Congress Advisory Committee and Scientific Committee, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus

RESEARCH GRANTS/AWARDS/CONTRACTS/PROJECTS:
Active
Peer Review
Title:
Cytokine Inflammatory Mediators and Mucin Regulation in Middle Ear Epithelium
Source:
NIH/NIDCD
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
Joseph Kerschner, MD (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI)
Dates:
07/01/2012 - 06/30/2017
Direct Funds:
$1,205,425
 
Title:
Establishment of primary and immortalized human middle ear epithelial cells lines as tools for the otitis media research community
Source:
NIH/NIDCD
Role:
PI
Dates:
03/01/2017 - 02/28/2019
Direct Funds:
$275,000
 
Pending
Peer Review
Title:
Effects of pepsin on laryngopharyngeal neoplasia
Source:
ACS
Role:
Principal Investigator
Dates:
07/01/2013 - 06/30/2017
Direct Funds:
$743,821 (Scored as ‘excellent/outstanding and put on ‘pay-if’ list)
 
Title:
Efficacy of Reza band for the treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux
Source:
MCW Cancer Center
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
John Rhee, MD
Dates:
03/01/2018 - 02/28/2019
Direct Funds:
$183,246
 
Prior
Peer Review
Title:
It is not about acid anymore: Role of pepsin in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux diseases related laryngitis.
Source:
Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
Martin Montenovo, MD (University of Washington, Seattle)
Dates:
07/01/2008 - 06/30/2010
Direct Funds:
$20,000
 
Title:
MicroRNA Regulation of Cholesteatoma Growth
Source:
NIH/NIDCD
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
David Friedland, MD, PhD (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI)
Dates:
04/01/2010 - 03/31/2012
Direct Funds:
$260,000
 
Title:
Microaspiration as a Cause for Respirtapry Disease in Children
Source:
NIH/NIDDK
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
Rachel Rosen, MD, MPH, (Children’s Hospital, Boston)
Dates:
07/01/2010 - 12/31/2011
Direct Funds:
$85,000
 
Non-Peer Review
Title:
Role of pepsin in chronic otitis media with effusion
Source:
Friends of MCW
Role:
Mentor
PI:
Justin Yan
Dates:
07/01/2009 - 08/31/2009
 
Title:
Role of nasopharyngeal reflux in refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.
Source:
Respiratory Technology Corporation
Role:
Co-investigator
PI:
Todd Loehrl, MD (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)
Dates:
01/01/2011 - 12/31/2011
 

INVITED LECTURES/WORKSHOPS/PRESENTATIONS:
Local
Novel drug targets for reflux disease., Dysphagia monthly meeting, Department of Gastroenterology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 04/2009
Role of pepsin in reflux-attributed laryngeal inflammatory disease and carcinogenesis, Inflammation and Cancer Cell Biology Research Group (ICCBRG), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 12/2010
Anti-pepsin therapeutic for reflux disease., Resident Research Conference lecture, Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, 07/2016 - Present
Pepsin: biomarker, mediator, and therapeutic target for reflux and aspiration., Faculty Highlight for Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences Annual Research Day, 03/2017 - Present
Current State and Research Resources, Department of Otolaryngology Faculty Retreat, 02/2018 - Present
 
Regional
Guest Speaker for Doctoral Student Class, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 04/2010
Clinical Understanding of Pepsin., 12th Biennial Phonosurgery Symposium, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 07/13/2012 - 07/14/2012
Update on LPR research, Advances and Controversies in Laryngology, Chicago, IL, 08/11/2012 - 08/12/2012
 
National
Analysis of the defense mechanisms functioning in the epithelium of the aero-digestive tract., The Scottish Society for Experimental Medicine, Dundee, United Kingdom, 11/2001
Laryngeal epithelial defense against laryngopharyngeal reflux: role of stress proteins., Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Dysphagia and Laryngology, Winston-Salem, NC, 05/2004
Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase III: diagnostic markers for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease., Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Dysphagia and Laryngology, Winston-Salem, NC, 05/2004
Role of pepsin in reflux-attributed laryngeal disorders and disease., University of California San Francisco Voice Conference, San Francisco, CA, 10/2006
Novel drug targets for reflux., Department of Otolaryngology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 10/2007
Novel drug targets for reflux., Department of Otolaryngology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 10/2007
Novel drug targets for reflux disease., Grand Rounds, Department of Otolaryngology, Mt. Sinai, New York, NY, 06/2008
Novel Drug Targets for Reflux Disease., Course Organizing Committee Member for the University of California San Francisco Voice Conference, San Francisco, CA, 10/2008
Novel drug targets for reflux disease., Guest Speaker at Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE, 06/2009
Grand Rounds, Department of Surgery, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, 04/2010
Role of pepsin in reflux-attributed laryngeal inflammatory disease and carcinogenesis, Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 06/2011
Mouse models for reflux disease, Best Evidence ENT, Kohler, WI, 08/2016 - Present
Pepsin: biomarker, mediator, and therapeutic target for reflux and aspiration., Guest Speaker for Grand Rounds at Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 10/2016 - Present
Keynote Speaker, 2017 Fall Voice Conference, Pentagon City – Washington, D.C., 10/2017 - Present
 
International
The Third Bioploymer Research Conference, York, United Kingdom, 09/1999
The First International Symposium on Human Pepsin, York, United Kingdom, 09/1999
Analysis of the defense mechanisms in the squamous epithelium associated with the aero-digestive tract., The First International LPR (laryngopharyngeal reflux) Conference, Winston-Salem, NC, 05/2000
The Fourth Bioploymer Research Conference, Dundee, United Kingdom, 09/2000
The Second International LPR Conference, Winston-Salem, NC, 05/2001
Expression of carbonic anhydrase iso-enzymes in gastro-oesophageal and laryngopharyngeal reflux disease., The Second International Symposium on Human Pepsin, Dundee, United Kingdom, 09/2001
Analysis of the defense mechanisms functioning in the epithelium of the aero-digestive tract., The Second International Symposium on Human Pepsin, Dundee, United Kingdom, 09/2001
Analysis of the defense mechanisms functioning in the epithelium of the aero-digestive tract., The Third International Symposium on Human Pepsin, Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 09/2001
Overview of basic immunoblotting procedure., The Fifth Bioploymer Research Conference, Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 09/2001
What are the compared mechanisms of cellular defense in the esophagus at the laryngeal level?, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, 09/2003
Role of pepsin in development of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease., Airway Diseases – A Shared Approach to Management & 6th Internationsl Symposium on Human Pepsin, York, United Kingdom, 04/2005
Laryngeal epithelial defenses: Effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux., Airway Diseases – A Shared Approach to Management & 6th Internationsl Symposium on Human Pepsin, York, United Kingdom, 04/2005
Receptor-mediated uptake of pepsin., Extra Oesophageal Reflux, State of the Art and Beyond, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 08/2006
Pepsin: Role in breakdown of laryngeal epithelial defenses and development of disease., Extra Oesophageal Reflux, State of the Art and Beyond, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 08/2006
The case for non-acid reflux in the pathogenesis of reflux-induced signs and symptoms., World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Avignon, France, 09/2006
Panel: Non-acid reflux and its significance to the otolaryngologist. Role of pepsin in reflux-attributed laryngeal disorders and disease., American Association for Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Washington DC, 09/2007
Mucin gene expression in human laryngeal epithelium: Effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux., International Conference on Advances in Laryngeal Biophysiology, Madison, WI, 07/2008
Director, 2008 International Conference on Extra-esophageal Reflux held in conjunction with the 8th International Symposium on Human Pepsin, Milwaukee, WI, 09/2008
Novel Drug Targets for Reflux Disease., International Conference on Extra-esophageal Reflux held in conjunction with the 8th International Symposium on Human Pepsin, Milwaukee, WI, 09/2008
A rationale for targeting pepsin in the treatment of reflux disease., Reflux and its consequences: key opinions in laryngeal, pulmonary and oesophageal manifestations in conjunction with 9th international symposium on human pepsin, Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom, 04/2010
Director, 2011 2nd International Conference on Extra-esophageal Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment, Milwaukee, WI, 10/2011
Vice Chair, Otolaryngology Organizing Committee for the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Como, Italy, 09/01/2012 - 09/04/2012
LPR as a risk factor in laryngeal cancer – role of refluxed pepsin in laryngopharyngeal neoplasia., World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, 08/27/2013
Chair, Symposium on Upper third of the esophagus and pharyngeal cancers at the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, 08/27/2013 - 08/30/2013
Can LPR promote carcinogenesis of the laryngopharynx?, American Association for Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Vancouver, Canada, 09/2013
Post symposium review panel, International Society for Otitis Media – 18th international symposium on recent advances in otitis media., Maryland, 06/2015 - Present
Chair of Symposium on Airway Reflux, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Monaco, 08/2015 - Present
Catching reflux with a mouse., 14th Biennial Phonosurgery Symposium, University of Wisconsin, Department of Surgery, 07/2016 - Present
Chair of Symposium on Laryngopharyngeal Reflux, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Geneva, 09/2017 - Present
Guest Speaker, 7th World Voice Consortium Conference, Denmark, Copenhagen, 12/2017 - Present
Guest Speaker, International Congress of ORL-HNS 2018, Seoul, South Korea, 04/2018 - Present
Panel participant, World Congress for Broncho-Esophagology and World Congress for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 06/2018 - Present
 

PEER REVIEWED WORKSHOPS/PRESENTATIONS:
National
Is carbonic anhydrase a potential defense mechanism against gastro- oesophageal reflux disease?, The British Society of Gastroenterology, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 03/2002
Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase as diagnostic markers for laryngopharngeal reflux., Tirological Society, Southern Section, Marco Island, FL, 01/2004
Effect of pepsin on laryngeal stress protein (Sep70, Sep53, and Hsp70) response: role in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease., Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings, Boco Ratan, FL, 05/2005
Activity/stability of human pepsin: implications for reflux attributed laryngeal disease., Tirological Society, Southern Section, Marco Island, FL, 02/2007
Receptor-mediated uptake of pepsin by laryngeal epithelial cells., Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings (American Laryngological Association), San Diego, CA, 04/2007
Pepsin in non-acidic refluxate can damage hypopharyngeal epithelial cells., Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings (American Broncho-Esophagological Association), Phoenix, AZ, 05/2009
Role of pepsin in laryngopharyngeal cancer., Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings (American Broncho-Esophagological Association), Las Vegas, NV, 05/2010
Panel: Great debates –laryngopharyngeal reflux – diagnosis, management, and controversy, Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings (American Broncho-Esophagological Association), Las Vegas, NV, 05/2010
Pepsin as a causal agent of inflammation during nonacidic reflux., The Voice Foundation’s 39th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice, Philadelphia, PA, 06/2010
 
International
Digestive Diseases Week, San Diego, CA, 05/2000
Analysis of the defense mechanisms functioning in the epithelium of the aero-digestive tract, Digestive Diseases Week, Atlanta, GA, 05/2001
Effect of reflux on expression of carbonic anhydrase iso-enzymes. (Poster Distinction), The World Congress of Gastroenterology, Bangkok, Thailand, 02/2002
Is carbonic anhydrase a potential defense mechanism against gastro- oesophageal reflux disease?, The Union of European Gastroenterology Week, Geneva, Switzerland, 10/2002
Pepsin – a mediator of reflux associated laryngeal damage., World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, 09/2003
Pepsin is the causal factor for loss of protective carbonic anhydrase isoform III in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, 09/2003
Effect of pepsin on laryngeal stress response., Digestive Disease Week, Chicago, IL, 05/2005
Pepsin as a causal agent of inflammation during nonacidic reflux., International Conference on Advances in Laryngeal Biophysiology and 11th Biennial Phonosurgery Symposium, Madison, WI, 07/2010
Esophageal epithelial defense against reflux mediated injury: are some better protected than others?, World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Boston, MA, 08/2010
 

COMMITTEE SERVICE:
Medical College of Wisconsin
2007 - Present Chair, Resident research, Research, Otolaryngology, Medical College of Wisconsin
2008 - Present Extended service member, Admissions, Medical College of Wisconsin
 

MCW STUDENTS, FACULTY, RESIDENTS AND CLINICAL/RESEARCH FELLOWS MENTORED:
Medical Students
Mathew Crapko, Medical College of Wisconsin, 06/2006 - 07/2006 Summer student mentor
Ethan Handler, Medical College of Wisconsin, 06/2007 - 07/2007 Summer student mentor
Javad Sajan, Medical College of Wisconsin, 06/2008 Summer student mentor
Justin Yan, Medical College of Wisconsin, 06/2009 - 07/2009 Summer student mentor
Justin Yan (Received Honors in Research), Medical College of Wisconsin, 01/2010 - 08/2011 Physician/scientist program mentor
Craig Hoekzema, Medical College of Wisconsin, 01/2010 - 01/2011 Physician/scientist program mentor
 
Residents
Elizabeth Kelly, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin, 01/2012 - 06/2012 Resident research rotation mentor
Craig Hoekzema, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin, 02/2014 - 06/30/2014 Resident research rotation mentor
Justin Yan, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin, 07/2014 - 11/2014 Resident research rotation mentor
 
Faculty
Joel Blumin, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin, 07/2008 - 11/2010 Scientific Advisor in Clinician/Scientist Scholars Program
Sang-Hyuk Lee, M.D., Medical College of Wisconsin, 08/2013 - 07/2014 Scientific Advisor during one year research sabbatical
 

EXTRAMURAL STUDENTS, FACULTY, RESIDENTS, AND CLINICAL/RESEARCH FELLOWS MENTORED:
Undergraduate Students
Jack Kershchner, 06/2011 - 09/2011 Summer student mentor
 

PROGRAMMATIC DEVELOPMENTS:
 
Research Programs
2016 - Present NSF I-Corps - commercialization of applied academic research
2016 - Present International, multidisciplinary, drug discovery program to develop a novel therapeutic for reflux disease which specifically targets pepsin.
 
 
 

INVENTION AND LICENSING :
2016 - Present Licensed immortalized cell lines established from normal human posterior commissure and true vocal cord to Applied Biological Materials Inc. in 2015 Licensed immortalized cell lines established from normal human posterior commissure and true vocal cord to ATCC in 2016 Developed and optimized a direct ELISA for pepsin, using two in-house monoclonal antibodies against human pepsin, which will be licensed to a company for sale. Currently testing sensitivity and specificity of different clinical sample types and preparing manuscript for publication prior to licensing. Filed MCW Discovery/Invention Disclosure for the potential use of custom pepsinogen primers for a PCR assay for pepsinogen mRNA as a diagnostic for inlet patches. A new composition of use patent is being prepared. We are finalizing the claims for a novel therapeutic for airway reflux that specifically targets pepsin. To be filed 2018. We will license novel immortalized human middle ear epithelial cells lines to ATCC in 2018


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Refereed Journal Publications/Original Papers
1. Axford SE, Sharp N, Ross PE, Pearson JP, Dettmar PW, Pannetti M, and Koufman JA. Cell biology of laryngeal epithelial defenses in health and disease: preliminary studies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2001;110(No. 12):1099-1108.
2. Johnston N, Ross PE, Bulmer D, Pearson JP, Gill G, Pignatelli M, Panetti M, Axford SE, Dettmar PW, and Koufman JA,. Cell biology of laryngeal epithelial defenses in health and disease: further studies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2003;112(No. 6): 481-491.
3. Johnston N, Knight J, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, and Koufman J. Pepsin and carbonic anhydrase as diagnostic markers for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Laryngoscope 2004; 114: 2130-2134.
4. Koufman JA, Dettmar PW, and Johnston N. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR). ENT News Voice Edition 2005; 14(No. 1): 42-45.
5. Knight J, Lively MO, Johnston N, Dettmar PW, and Koufman J. Development of a highly sensitive pepsin immunoassay for detection of laryngopharyngeal reflux in subjects undergoing 24-hour double-probe monitoring. Laryngoscope 2005; 115: 1473-1478.
6. Gill GA, Johnston N, Buda A, Pignatelli M, Pearson J, Dettmar PW, and Koufman J. Laryngeal epithelial defenses against laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR): investigations of pepsin, carbonic anhydrase III, pepsin, and the inflammatory response. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2005; 114(12): 913-921.
7. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, and Koufman J. Effect of pepsin on laryngeal stress protein (Sep70, Sep53, and Hsp70) response: role in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2006; 115(1): 47-58.
8. Johnston N and Koufman JA. What are the compared mechanisms of cellular defense in the esophagus and at the laryngeal level? The duodenogastroesophageal reflux. 125 questions and 125 answers (Proceedings from the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Paris, France, September 2003). R. Giuli and C Scarpignato Eds. 2006: 15-23.
9. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Bishwokarma B, Koufman JA, and Lively MO. Activity/stability of human pepsin: implications for reflux attributed laryngeal disease. Laryngoscope 2007; 117 (6) 1036-1039.
10. Crapko M, Kerschner J, and Johnston N. Role of extra-esopahgeal reflux in chronic otitis media with effusion. Laryngoscope 2007; 117 (8): 1419-1423.
11. Johnston N, Wells CW, Blumin JH, Toohill RJ, and Merati AL. Receptor-mediated uptake of pepsin by laryngeal epithelial cells. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2007; 116(12): 934-938.
12. Rees ENL, Pazmany L, Gutowska-Owsiak D, Inman C, Phillips A, Stokes C, Johnston N, Koufman JA, Postma G, Bailey M, and Birchall MA. The Mucosal Immune Response to laryngopharyngeal reflux. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2008; 177: 1187-1193.
13. Samuels T, Handler E, Syring ML, Pajewski N, Blumin JH, Kerschner JE, Johnston N. Mucin Gene Expression in Human Laryngeal Epithelia: Effect of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2008; 117(9): 688-695.
14. Birchall MA, Bailey M, Gutowska-Owsiak D, Johnston N, Inman CF, Stokes CR, Postma G, Pazmany L, Koufman JA, Phillips A, Rees LE. Immunologic Response of the Laryngeal Mucosa to Extraesophageal Reflux. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2008; 117(12): 891-895.
15. Blumin JH, Johnston N and Toohill RJ. What are the underlying causes (impaired protective reflexes, mucosal sensory deficits, reduced mucosal protection) of esophago-pharyngeal reflux? (Proceedings from the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Diseases of the Esophagus, Monte Carlos, France, April 2008). R. Giuli and C Scarpignato Eds.
16. Johnston N, Wells CW, Samuels TL, and Blumin JH. Pepsin in non-acidic refluxate can damage laryngeal epithelial cells. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2009; 118:677-685.
17. Samuels TL and Johnston N. Pepsin as a Causal Agent of Inflammation during Nonacidic Reflux. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 141(5):559-563.
18. Samuels TL and Johnston N. Pepsin as a marker for extra-esophageal reflux. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2010; 119:203-208.
19. Johnston N, Wells CW, Samuels TL, and Blumin JH. A rationale for targeting pepsin in the treatment of reflux disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2010; 119(8):547-558.
20. Bock JM, Brawley MK, Johnston N, Samuels TL, Massey BL, Campbell BH, Toohill RJ, Blumin JH. Analysis of pepsin in tracheoesophageal puncture sites. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2010; 119(12):799-805.
21. Johnston N. Review article: Uptake of pepsin at pH7 - in non-acid reflux - causes inflammatory and perhaps even neoplastic, changes in the laryngopharynx. Alimentary, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2011; 33 (Suppl. 1):13-20.
22. Allen J, Tinling SP, Johnston N, and Belafsky P. Review article: effects of pepsin and alginate in an animal model of squamous cell carcinoma. Alimentary, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2011; 33 (Suppl. 1): 21-27.
23. Blumin JH and Johnston N. Evidence of extraesophageal reflux in idiopathic subglottic stenosis. Laryngoscope 2011; 121(6):1266-1273.
24. Sana SS, Sana SM, Johnston N, and Mittal SK. Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD): A literature review. Journal of Family Practice 2011; 60(8):458-462.
25. Rosen R, Johnston N, Hart K, Khatwa U, Katz E, and Nurko S. Higher rate of lung culture positivity in children with nonacid reflux and respiratory disorders. The Journal of Pediatrics 2011; 159(3):504-506.
26. Wassenaar E, Johnston N, Merati A, Montenovo M, Petersen R, Tatum R, Pellegrini C, and Oelschlager B. Pepsin detection in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux before and after fundoplication. Surgical Endoscopy 2011; 25(12):3870-3876.
27. Rosen R, Johnston N, Hart K, Katz E, Khatwa U, and Nurko S. The presence of pepsin in the lung and its relationship to pathologic gastroesophageal reflux. Neurogastroenterology and Motility 2012: 24(2): 129-e85.
28. Trinick R, Johnston N, Dalzell AM, and McNamara PS. Reflux-aspiration in children with neurodisability – a significant problem, but can we measure it? Journal of Paediatric Surgery 2012: 47(2):291-298.
29. Johnston N, Yan JC, Hoekzema CR, Samuels TL, Stoner G, Blumin JH, and Bock JM. Pepsin promotes proliferation in normal and transformed laryngopharyngeal epithelial cells. Laryngoscope 2012;122(6):1317-1325
30. Loehrl TA, Samuels TL, Poetker DM, Toohill RJ, Blumin JH and Johnston N. The role of extra-esophageal reflux in medically and surgically refractory rhinosinusitis. Laryngoscope 2012: 122(7): 1425-1430.
31. Koufman JA and Johnston N. Potential benefits of pH8.8 alkaline drinking water as an adjunct in the treatment of reflux disease. Annals of Otol Rhinol and Laryngol 2012: 121(7): 431-434. Recommended for F1000Prime http://f1000.com/prime/718021982
32. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Strugala V, Allen JE and Chan WW. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and GERD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2013; 1300(1):71-79.
33. Rosen R, Amirault J, Johnston N, Haver K, Khatwa U, Rubinstein E, Nurko S. The utility of endoscopy and multichannel intraluminal impedance testing in children with cough and wheezing. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2014 Nov;49(11):1090-6.
34. Laohasiriwong S, Johnston N and Woodson TB. Extra-esophageal reflux (EER), NOSE score, and sleep quality in an adult clinic population. Laryngoscope 2013; epub ahead of print.
35. Kelly EA, Parakininkas DE, Werlin SL, Southern JF, Johnston N, and Kerschner JE. Prevalence of pediatric aspiration associated extra-esophageal reflux disease. JAMA Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery 2013, epub ahead of print. Reviewed by Dr. Sanjay Gupta for MedPage Today http://www.medpagetoday.com/Gastroenterology/GERD/41281, ENT Today, JAMA Archives and Reuters Health.
36. Samuels TL, Pearson ACS, Wells CW, Stoner GD, and Johnston N. Curcumin and anthocyanin inhibit pepsin-mediated cell damage and carcinogenic changes in airway epithelial cells. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 2013, In Press.
37. Johnston N. Can laryngopharyngeal reflux promote carcinogenesis of the laryngopharynx? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2013, In Press
38. Rosen R, Johnston N, Hart K, Katz E, Khatwa U, and Nurko S. The relationship between pepsin positivity in the lung and reflux testing in children with respiratory disease. Submitted to The Journal of Pediatrics 2013 for consideration for publication.
39. Garland JS, Alex CP, Johnston N, Yan JC, and Werlin SL. Association between Tracheal Pepsin, a Reliable Marker of Gastric Aspiration, and Head of Bed Elevation Among Ventilated Neonates. Submitted to Journal of Perinatology 2013 for consideration for publication.
40. Kelly EA, Samuels TL, and Johnston N. Chronic pepsin exposure increases cell proliferation and promotes tumor growth of hypopharyngeal cells. Submitted to Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 2013 for consideration for publication.
41. Samuels TL, Pearson AC, Wells CW, Stoner GD, Johnston N. Curcumin and anthocyanin inhibit pepsin-mediated cell damage and carcinogenic changes in airway epithelial cells. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013 Oct;122(10):632-41.
42. Kelly EA, Samuels TL, Johnston N. Chronic pepsin exposure promotes anchorage-independent growth and migration of a hypopharyngeal squamous cell line. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Apr;150(4):618-24. PMCID: PMC4423599
43. Kerschner JE, Hong W, Khampang P, Johnston N. Differential response of gel-forming mucins to pathogenic middle ear bacteria. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014 Aug;78(8):1368-73. PMCID: PMC4104932
44. Bock JM, Howell AB, Johnston N, Kresty LA, Lew D. Upper esophageal and pharyngeal cancers. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014 Sep;1325:49-56. PMCID: PMC4617690
45. Lee SH, Samuels T, Bock JM, Blumin JH, Johnston N. Establishment of an immortalized laryngeal posterior commissure cell line as a tool for reflux research. Laryngoscope. 2015 Feb;125(2):E73-7.
46. Garland JS, Alex CP, Johnston N, Yan JC, Werlin SL. Association between tracheal pepsin, a reliable marker of gastric aspiration, and head of bed elevation among ventilated neonates. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2014 Jan 01;7(3):185-92.
47. Laohasiriwong S, Woodson BT, Johnston N Extra-Esophageal Reflux (EER) and Sleep Disorders. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Aug;147(2 suppl):P120
48. Laohasiriwong S, Johnston N, Woodson BT Reproducibility of Salivary Pepsin: Clinic versus Home. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Aug;147(2 suppl):P195
49. Samuels T, Hoekzema C, Gould J, Goldblatt M, Frelich M, Bosler M, Lee SH, Johnston N. Local Synthesis of Pepsin in Barrett's Esophagus and the Role of Pepsin in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2015 Nov;124(11):893-902. PMCID: PMC4750403
50. Southwood JE, Hoekzema CR, Samuels TL, Wells C, Poetker DM, Johnston N, Loehrl TA. The Impact of Pepsin on Human Nasal Epithelial Cells In Vitro: A Potential Mechanism for Extraesophageal Reflux Induced Chronic Rhinosinusitis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2015 Dec;124(12):957-64.
51. Lee SH, Nam HJ, Kang HJ, Samuels TL, Johnston N, Lim YC. Valproic acid suppresses the self-renewal and proliferation of head and neck cancer stem cells. Oncol Rep. 2015 Oct;34(4):2065-71.
52. Duncan DR, Amirault J, Johnston N, Mitchell P, Larson K, Rosen RL. Gastroesophageal Reflux Burden, Even in Children That Aspirate, Does Not Increase Pediatric Hospitalization. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 08;63(2):210-7. PMCID: PMC4917472
53. Johnston N, Ondrey F, Rosen R, Hurley BP, Gould J, Allen J, DelGaudio J, Altman KW. Airway reflux. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 10;1381(1):5-13.
54. Samuels TL, Yan J, Khampang P, MacKinnon A, Hong W, Johnston N, Kerschner JE. Association of microRNA 146 with middle ear hyperplasia in pediatric otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Sep;88:104-8. PMCID: PMC4978186
55. Luebke K, Samuels TL, Chelius TH, Sulman CG, McCormick ME, Kerschner JE, Johnston N, Chun RH. Pepsin as a biomarker for laryngopharyngeal reflux in children with laryngomalacia. Laryngoscope. 2017 10;127(10):2413-2417.
56. Preciado D, Granath A, Lin J, Val S, Kurabi A, Johnston N, Vijayasekaran S, Valdez T, Depireux D, Hermansson A. Panel 8: Report on Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 04;156(4_suppl):S106-S113.
57. Samuels TL, Yan JC, Khampang P, Dettmar PW, MacKinnon A, Hong W, Johnston N, Papsin BC, Chun RH, McCormick ME, Kerschner JE. Association of Gel-Forming Mucins and Aquaporin Gene Expression With Hearing Loss, Effusion Viscosity, and Inflammation in Otitis Media With Effusion. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 08 01;143(8):810-817. PMCID: PMC5710562
58. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Ondrey FG, Nanchal R, Lee SH, Bock JM. Pepsin: biomarker, mediator, and therapeutic target for reflux and aspiration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 12;1434(1):282-289.
59. McCann AJ, Samuels TL, Blumin JH, Johnston N. The role of pepsin in epithelia-mesenchymal transition in idiopathic subglottic stenosis. Laryngoscope. 2020 01;130(1):154-158.
60. Samuels TL, Altman KW, Gould JC, Kindel T, Bosler M, MacKinnon A, Hagen CE, Johnston N. Esophageal pepsin and proton pump synthesis in barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2019 12;129(12):2687-2695.
61. Marshall S, McCann AJ, Samuels TL, Blair A, Bonne V, Johnston N, Koufman J. Detection of pepsin and IL-8 in saliva of adult asthmatic patients. J Asthma Allergy. 2019;12:155-161. PMCID: PMC6549784
62. Klimara MJ, Johnston N, Samuels TL, Visotcky AM, Poetker DM, Loehrl TA, Blumin JH, Bock JM. Correlation of salivary and nasal lavage pepsin with MII-pH testing. Laryngoscope. 2020 04;130(4):961-966.
63. Klimara MJ, Nanchal R, Johnston N. Incidence and risk of aspiration in mechanically ventilated patients Reflux Aspiration and Lung Disease. 1 January 2018:235-244.
64. Johnston N. The pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux Gastroesophageal Reflux and the Lung. 1 January 2013:23-41.
65. Johnston N. Novel drug targets for reflux disease Effects, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Esophageal Reflux. January 2012:335-345.
66. Samuels TL, Johnston N. Pepsin as a marker of extraesophageal reflux Effects, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Esophageal Reflux. January 2012:115-122.
67. Johnston N, Toohill RJ. Effects, diagnosis and management of extra-esophageal reflux Effects, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Esophageal Reflux. January 2012:1-530.
68. Johnston N, Toohill RJ. Preface Effects, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Esophageal Reflux. January 2012.
69. Johnston N. Review article: Uptake of pepsin at pH 7 - In non-acid reflux - Causes inflammatory, and perhaps even neoplastic, changes in the laryngopharynx Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. April 2011;33(SUPPL. 1):13-20.
70. Allen J, Tinling SP, Johnston N, Belafsky P. Review article: Effects of pepsin and alginate in an animal model of squamous cell carcinoma Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. April 2011;33(SUPPL. 1):21-28.
71. Johnston N. Role of non-acidic reflux in laryngeal injury and disease Laryngeal Diseases: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments. 2010:89-99.
72. Samuels TL, Johnston N. Pepsin as a marker of extraesophageal reflux Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. March 2010;119(3):203-208.
73. Hurley BP, Jugo RH, Snow RF, Samuels TL, Yonker LM, Mou H, Johnston N, Rosen R. Pepsin Triggers Neutrophil Migration Across Acid Damaged Lung Epithelium. Sci Rep. 2019 09 24;9(1):13778. PMCID: PMC6760148
74. Klimara MJ, Samuels TL, Johnston N, Chun RH, McCormick ME. Detection of Pepsin in Oral Secretions of Infants with and without Laryngomalacia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2020 Mar;129(3):224-229.
75. Samuels TL, Zimmermann MT, Zeighami A, Demos W, Southwood JE, Blumin JH, Bock JM, Johnston N. RNA Sequencing Reveals Cancer-Associated Changes in Laryngeal Cells Exposed to Non-Acid Pepsin. Laryngoscope. 2020 Mar 23.
76. McCormick CA, Samuels TL, Battle MA, Frolkis T, Blumin JH, Bock JM, Wells C, Yan K, Altman KW, Johnston N. H+/K+ATPase Expression in the Larynx of Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Laryngeal Cancer Patients. Laryngoscope. 2020 Apr 06.
77. Espahbodi M, Samuels TL, McCormick C, Khampang P, Yan K, Marshall S, McCormick ME, Chun RH, Harvey SA, Friedland DR, Johnston N, Kerschner JE. Analysis of Inflammatory Signaling in Human Middle Ear Cell Culture Models of Pediatric Otitis Media. Laryngoscope. 2020 May 20.
78. Klimara MJ, Randall DR, Allen J, Figueredo E, Johnston N. Proximal reflux: biochemical mediators, markers, therapeutic targets, and clinical correlations. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 May 13.
 
Books, Chapters, and Reviews
1. Johnston N and Toohill R. Effects, diagnosis and management of extra-esophageal reflux. A multi-disciplinary approach by world-renowned experts in the field. Nova Science Publishing Company, New York. ISBN 978-1-61668-117-7
2. Johnston N. Role of non-acid reflux in laryngeal injury and disease. Laryngeal disease: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Chapter 5, p89-100. Nova Science Publishing Company, New York. ISBN 978-1-60876-107-4
3. Johnston N. The pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux and the lung. Springer Science and Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4614-5501-1
4. Blumin JH and Johnston N. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease. Bailey’s Head and Neck Surgery – Otolaryngology 5th Edition. Chapter 66, p958-977. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1-60913-602-4
5. Southwood JE, Blumin JH, and Johnston N. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux. Laryngology and Voice Disorders. Sataloff’s Comprehensive Textbook of Otolaryngology. Jaypee Medical Publishers. In Press
 
Non-Refereed Journal Publications/Original Papers
1. Johnston N. Receptor mediated uptake of pepsin: Significance in otolaryngology. Perspectives in voice and voice disorders 2008; 18: 134-142.
2. Bock JM, Johnston N, Toohill RT, Koszewski IJ, Samuels TL, and Blumin JH. Extra-esophageal reflux and laryngeal disease: Update from a translational research team. Perspectives in voice and voice disorders 2011; 21 (3): 118-123.
 
Abstracts
1. Sharp N, Ross PE, Dettmar PW, Panetti M, Koufman JA. Expression of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in gastro-oesophageal and laryngopharyngeal reflux diseases. Gastroenterology 2001;120(No. 5, Suppl 1):A-424.
2. Sharp N, Ross PE, Dettmar PW. Effect of reflux on expression of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;17(Suppl):A222.
3. Johnston N, Ross PE, Dettmar PW, Panetti M, Koufman JA. Is carbonic anhydrase a potential defence mechanism against gastro-oesophageal reflux disease? Gut 2002;51(Suppl No. III):A66.
4. Johnston N, Ross PE, Dettmar PW, Koufman JA. Pepsin is the causal factor for loss of protective carbonic anhydrase isoform III in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2004; 38 (No. 2):141.
5. Johnston N, Knight J, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Koufman JA. Pepsin – a mediator of reflux associated laryngeal damage. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2004; 38 (No. 2):141.
6. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Birchall M, Koufman JA. Laryngeal epithelial defenses: Effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology 2005; 30 (Suppl No: 1):SP 5.
7. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Birchall M, Koufman JA. Role of pepsin in development of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology 2005; 30 (Suppl No: 1):SP 21.
8. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Koufman JA. Laryngeal epithelial defense against larygopharyngeal reflux disease: role of stress proteins. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology 2005; 30 (Suppl No: 1):P3.
9. Johnston N, Dettmar PW, Lively MO, Birchall M, Koufman JA. Effect of pepsin on laryngeal stress protein response. Gastroenterology 2005; 128(4) Suppl 2: A344.
10. Birchall M, Rees L, Phillips A, Johnston N, Postma G, Koufman JA, Bailey M. MHC molecule expression in laryngeal epithelium of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux compared to normal subjects. Clinical Otolaryngology 2006; 31(6): 580.
11. Samuels TL, Stoner GD, Wells CW, Johnston N. Dietary polyphenols inhibit pepsin and prevent airway epithelial cell hyperproliferation associated with laryngeal cancer. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2011; 10(11) Suppl 1: B186.
 

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