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Autofluorescence imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in incomplete congenital stationary night blindness and comparison with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Ophthalmol 2012 Jan;153(1):143-54.e2

Date

09/17/2011

Pubmed ID

21920492

Pubmed Central ID

PMC4377134

DOI

10.1016/j.ajo.2011.06.018

Abstract

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the evaluation of retinal structure can have diagnostic value in differentiating between incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). To compare retinal thickness differences between patients with CSNB2 and myopic controls.

DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study.

METHODS: Ten eyes of 5 patients diagnosed with CSNB2 (4 X-linked recessive, 1 autosomal recessive) and 6 eyes of 3 patients with RP (2 autosomal dominant, 1 autosomal recessive) were evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Diagnoses of CSNB2 and RP were confirmed by full-field electroretinography (ERG). Manual segmentation of retinal layers, aided by a computer program, was performed by 2 professional segmenters on SD OCT images of all CSNB2 patients and 4 age-similar, normal myopic controls. Seven patients were screened for mutations with congenital stationary night blindness and RP genotyping arrays.

RESULTS: Patients with CSNB2 had specific findings on SD OCT and FAF that were distinct from those found in RP. CSNB2 patients showed qualitatively normal SD OCT results with preserved photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction, whereas this junction was lost in RP patients. In addition, CSNB2 patients had normal FAF images, whereas patients with RP demonstrated a ring of increased autofluorescence around the macula. On SD OCT segmentation, the inner and outer retinal layers of both X-linked recessive and autosomal recessive CSNB2 patients were thinner compared with those of normal myopic controls, with means generally outside of normal 95% confidence intervals. The only layers that demonstrated similar thickness between CSNB2 patients and the controls were the retinal nerve fiber layer and, temporal to the fovea, the combined outer segment layer and retinal pigment epithelium. A proband and his 2 affected brothers from a family segregating X-linked recessive CSNB2 had a mutation, p.R614X, in the gene encoding calcium channel, α 1F subunit.

CONCLUSIONS: CSNB2 patients (X-linked recessive and autosomal recessive) had significantly thinner retinas than myopic controls. However, they demonstrated qualitatively normal SD OCT and FAF images, and therefore can be differentiated from RP patients with these techniques. Although ERG testing remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of these conditions, FAF and SD OCT systems are more widely available to community ophthalmologists, offer shorter acquisition times, and, unlike ERG, can be performed on the same day as the initial clinic visit. Therefore, as a supplement to ERG and genetic testing, we advocate the use of FAF and SD OCT in the examination of patients with CSNB2 and RP.

Author List

Chen RW, Greenberg JP, Lazow MA, Ramachandran R, Lima LH, Hwang JC, Schubert C, Braunstein A, Allikmets R, Tsang SH

Author

Jonathan P. Greenberg MD Instructor in the Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adult
Aged
Calcium Channels, L-Type
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Electroretinography
Eye Diseases, Hereditary
Fluorescein Angiography
Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
Humans
Male
Myopia
Night Blindness
Prospective Studies
Retina
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Visual Acuity
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