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Desflurane and isoflurane exert modest beneficial actions on left ventricular diastolic function during myocardial ischemia in dogs. Anesthesiology 1995 Nov;83(5):1021-35



Pubmed ID





BACKGROUND: Volatile anesthetics exert cardioprotective effects during myocardial ischemia. This investigation examined the regional systolic and diastolic mechanical responses to brief left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion in the central ischemic zone and in remote normal myocardium in the conscious state and during desflurane and isoflurane anesthesia.

METHODS: Eighteen experiments were performed in nine dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular pressure, cardiac output, LAD coronary blood flow velocity, and LAD and left circumflex coronary artery subendocardial segment length. Regional myocardial contractility was evaluated with the slope of the preload recruitable stroke work relationship determined from a series of left ventricular pressure-segment length diagrams in the LAD and left circumflex coronary artery zones. Diastolic function was assessed with a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity in LAD and left circumflex coronary artery regions, and regional chamber stiffness constants derived using monoexponential and three-element exponential curve fitting in each zone. On separate experimental days, hemodynamics and indices of regional functional were obtained in the conscious state and during 1.1 and 1.6 minimum alveolar concentration end-tidal desflurane or isoflurane before and during LAD occlusion.

RESULTS: In conscious dogs, LAD occlusion abolished regional stroke work, increased chamber stiffness (monoexponential: 0.39 +/- 0.04 during control to 1.34 +/- 0.39 mm-1 during LAD occlusion), and decreased the rate of early ventricular filling in the ischemic zone. These changes were accompanied by increased contractility (slope: 103 +/- 8 during control to 112 +/- 7 mmHg during LAD occlusion), rapid filling rate (maximum segment lengthening velocity: 46 +/- 5 during control to 55 +/- 7 mm.s-1 during LAD occlusion), and chamber stiffness (monoexponential: 0.43 +/- 0.05 during control to 1.14 +/- 0.25 mm-1 during LAD occlusion) in the normal region. Increases in tau were also observed in the conscious state during the period of myocardial ischemia. Desflurane and isoflurane increased tau and decreased the slope and maximum segment lengthening velocity in a dose-related manner. Monoexponential and three-element element exponential curve fitting were unchanged by the volatile anesthetics in the absence of ischemia. Myocardial contractility and rapid filling rate were enhanced in the nonischemic region during LAD occlusion in the presence of desflurane and isoflurane. In contrast to the findings in the conscious state, ischemia-induced increases in tau and chamber stiffness in the ischemic and normal zones were attenuated during anesthesia induced by desflurane and isoflurane.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that increases in contractility of remote myocardium during brief regional ischemia were preserved in the presence of desflurane and isoflurane anesthesia. In addition, desflurane and isoflurane blunted ischemia-induced increases in tau and regional chamber stiffness in both the ischemic and nonischemic zones. These results demonstrate that the volatile anesthetics may exert important beneficial actions on left ventricular mechanics in the presence of severe abnormalities in systolic and diastolic function during ischemia.

Author List

Pagel PS, Hettrick DA, Lowe D, Tessmer JP, Warltier DC


Paul S. Pagel MD, PhD Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anesthesia, Inhalation
Anesthetics, Inhalation
Coronary Circulation
Myocardial Contraction
Myocardial Ischemia
Random Allocation
Ventricular Function, Left
jenkins-FCD Prod-409 d1e206b0be345926047b0d9c353c78a4cce4058b