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Influence of volatile anesthetics on left ventricular afterload in vivo. Differences between desflurane and sevoflurane. Anesthesiology 1996 Jul;85(1):112-20

Date

07/01/1996

Pubmed ID

8694356

DOI

10.1097/00000542-199607000-00016

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This investigation examined the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on quantitative indices of left ventricular afterload derived from aortic input impedance (Zin) interpreted using a three-element Windkessel model.

METHODS: After Animal Care Committee approval, dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented for measurement of systemic hemodynamics including aortic blood pressure and flow. On separate days, aortic pressure and flow waveforms were recorded under steady-state conditions in the conscious state and after equilibration for 30 min at 1.1, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7 minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane or sevoflurane. Aortic input impedance spectra were obtained via power spectral analysis of aortic pressure and flow waveforms. Characteristic aortic impedance (Zc) and total arterial resistance were calculated as the mean of the magnitude of Zin between 2 and 15 Hz and the difference between Zin at zero frequency and Zc, respectively. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated from aortic pressure and flow waveforms using the Windkessel model.

RESULTS: Desflurane and sevoflurane increased heart rate and decreased systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, left ventricular peak positive rate of increase in left ventricular pressure, percent segment shortening, and stroke volume. Sevoflurane, but not desflurane, decreased cardiac output. Desflurane, but not sevoflurane, decreased systemic vascular resistance. Desflurane decreased R (3,170 +/- 188 during control to 2441 +/- 220 dynes.second.centimeter-5 at 1.7 minimum alveolar concentration) and did not alter C and Zc. In contrast, sevoflurane increased C (0.57 +/- 0.05 during control to 0.79 +/- 0.05 ml/ mmHg at 1.7 minimum alveolar concentration) and Zc (139 +/- 10 during control to 194 +/- 14 dynes.second.centimeter-5 at 1.7 minimum alveolar concentration) but did not change R.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that desflurane and sevoflurane produce substantially different effects on left ventricular afterload in chronically instrumented dogs. Desflurane-induced decreases in systemic vascular resistance occur primarily because of effects on arteriolar resistance vessels. In contrast, sevoflurane increased C and Zc concomitant with pressure-dependent reductions in aortic diameter, suggesting that this anesthetic may alter left ventricular afterload by affecting the mechanical properties of the aorta.

Author List

Lowe D, Hettrick DA, Pagel PS, Warltier DC

Author

Paul S. Pagel MD, PhD Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anesthetics, Inhalation
Animals
Dogs
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethers
Hemodynamics
Isoflurane
Methyl Ethers
Ventricular Function, Left
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