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Childhood immunizations: position on the enhanced inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine dilemma. J Natl Med Assoc 1997 Dec;89(12):785-9 PMID: 9433057 PMCID: PMC2608288

Pubmed ID



Recent review of the polio vaccines (live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine [OPV] and enhanced inactivated poliovirus vaccine [eIPV]) for children has generated much debate between infectious disease experts and public health officials. Poliomyelitis was a common medical condition in the 1940s and 1950s, and the success of OPV in eradicating poliomyelitis from the United States and even the Western hemisphere cannot be disputed. However, the adverse condition of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) has been reported in eight to nine cases per year as a result of exclusively using OPV in the United States. The dilemma has been how to continue the elimination of wild-type poliovirus paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States and worldwide while minimizing the occurrence of VAPP. Clinical trials have supported that eIPV and OPV provide similar protection for humoral immunity. However, OPV provides superior gastrointestinal immunity, which is a public health benefit for vulnerable populations. Recommendations among experts have concluded that the sequential eIPV/OPV is the preferred schedule, with eIPV only or OPV only as alternative equally acceptable schedules. Therefore, factors such as cost, compliance, and access to health care must be considered by parents and providers when selecting a polio vaccine regimen, especially among underserved populations.

Author List

Willis E, Sherrod JL


Earnestine Willis MD, MPH Chief, Professor in the Pediatrics department at Medical College of Wisconsin


2-s2.0-0031307729   5 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Age Factors
Child, Preschool
Immunization Schedule
Medically Underserved Area
Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated
Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
jenkins-FCD Prod-310 bff9d975ec7f2d302586822146c2801dd4449aad