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Clofarabine plus cytarabine compared with cytarabine alone in older patients with relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia: results from the CLASSIC I Trial. J Clin Oncol 2012 Jul 10;30(20):2492-9 PMID: 22585697 PMCID: PMC4874149

Pubmed ID





PURPOSE: To compare the receipt of clofarabine plus cytarabine (Clo+Ara-C arm) with cytarabine (Ara-C arm) in patients ≥ 55 years old with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either clofarabine (Clo) 40 mg/m(2) or a placebo followed by Ara-C 1 g/m(2) for five consecutive days. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included event-free survival (EFS), 4-month EFS, overall remission rate (ORR; complete remission [CR] plus CR with incomplete peripheral blood count recovery), disease-free survival (DFS), duration of remission (DOR), and safety.

RESULTS: Among 320 patients with confirmed AML (median age, 67 years), the median OS was 6.6 months in the Clo+Ara-C arm and 6.3 months in the Ara-C arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.28; P = 1.00). The ORR was 46.9% in the Clo+Ara-C arm (35.2% CR) versus 22.9% in the Ara-C arm (17.8% CR; P < .01). EFS (HR: 0.63; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.80; P < .01) and 4-month EFS (37.7% v 16.6%; P < .01) favored the Clo+Ara-C arm compared with Ara-C arm, respectively. DFS and DOR were similar in both arms. Overall 30-day mortality was 16% and 5% for CLO+Ara-C and Ara-C arms, respectively. In the Clo+Ara-C and Ara-C arms, the most common grade 3 to 4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (47% v 35%, respectively), hypokalemia (18% v 11%, respectively), thrombocytopenia (16% v 17%, respectively), pneumonia (14% v 10%, respectively), anemia (13% v 0%, respectively), neutropenia (11% v 9%, respectively), increased AST (11% v 2%, respectively), and increased ALT (10% v 3%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Although the primary end point of OS did not differ between arms, Clo+Ara-C significantly improved response rates and EFS. Study follow-up continues, and the role of clofarabine in the treatment of adult patients with AML continues to be investigated.

Author List

Faderl S, Wetzler M, Rizzieri D, Schiller G, Jagasia M, Stuart R, Ganguly S, Avigan D, Craig M, Collins R, Maris M, Kovacsovics T, Goldberg S, Seiter K, Hari P, Greiner J, Vey N, Recher C, Ravandi F, Wang ES, Vasconcelles M, Huebner D, Kantarjian HM


Parameswaran Hari MD Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin


2-s2.0-84864050584   109 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adenine Nucleotides
Aged, 80 and over
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Disease-Free Survival
Double-Blind Method
Drug Administration Schedule
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Middle Aged
jenkins-FCD Prod-321 98992d628744e349846c2f62ac68f241d7e1ea70