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An upper extremity inverse dynamics model for pediatric Lofstrand crutch-assisted gait. J Biomech 2011 Jul 28;44(11):2162-7 PMID: 21652035

Pubmed ID





The objective of this study was to develop an instrumented Lofstrand crutch system, which quantifies three-dimensional (3-D) upper extremity (UE) kinematics and kinetics using an inverse dynamics model. The model describes the dynamics of the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and crutches and is compliant with the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) recommended standards. A custom designed Lofstrand crutch system with four, six-degree-of-freedom force transducers was implemented with the inverse dynamics model to obtain triaxial UE joint reaction forces and moments. The crutch system was validated statically and dynamically for accuracy of computing joint reaction forces and moments during gait. The root mean square (RMS) error of the system ranged from 0.84 to 5.20%. The system was demonstrated in children with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP), incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), and type I osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The greatest joint reaction forces were observed in the posterior direction of the wrist, while shoulder flexion moments were the greatest joint reaction moments. The subject with CP showed the highest forces and the subject with SCI demonstrated the highest moments. Dynamic quantification may help to elucidate UE joint demands in regard to pain and pathology in long-term assistive device users.

Author List

Slavens BA, Bhagchandani N, Wang M, Smith PA, Harris GF


Gerald Harris PhD Director in the Orthopaedic Research Engineering Center (OREC) department at Marquette University
Brooke Slavens BS,MS,PhD Assistant Professor in the Occupational Science & Technology department at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Mei Wang PhD Associate Professor in the Orthopaedic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin


2-s2.0-79960269723   18 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Biomechanical Phenomena
Cerebral Palsy
Models, Biological
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Spinal Cord Injuries
jenkins-FCD Prod-331 a335b1a6d1e9c32173c9534e6f6ff51494143916