Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

Chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy attenuates vortex formation time in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular systolic function undergoing aortic valve replacement. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2013 Aug;27(4):660-4



Pubmed ID





OBJECTIVE: Transmitral blood flow produces a vortex ring that enhances the hydraulic efficiency of early left ventricular (LV) filling. The effect of pressure-overload hypertrophy on the duration of LV vortex ring formation (vortex formation time [VFT]) is unknown. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that chronic LV pressure-overload hypertrophy produced by severe aortic stenosis (AS) reduces VFT in patients with preserved LV systolic function undergoing aortic valve replacement.

DESIGN: Observational study.

SETTING: Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

PARTICIPANTS: After the Institutional Review Board's approval, 8 patients (7 men and 1 woman; age, 62±5 y; and ejection fraction, 59%±5%) with AS (peak pressure gradient, 81±22 mmHg; aortic valve area, 0.78±0.25 cm(2)) scheduled for aortic valve replacement were compared with 8 patients (all men; age, 63±3 y; and ejection fraction, 60%±7%) without AS undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Under general anesthesia, peak early LV filling (E) and atrial systole (A) blood flow velocities and their corresponding velocity-time integrals were obtained using pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography to determine E/A and atrial filling fraction (β). Mitral valve diameter (D) was calculated as the average of minor and major axis lengths obtained in the midesophageal bicommissural and long-axis transesophageal echocardiography imaging planes, respectively. Posterior wall thickness (PWT) was measured at end-diastole using M-mode echocardiography. VFT was calculated as 4×(1-β)×SV/πD(3), where SV = stroke volume measured using thermodilution. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, LV diastolic function, PWT, and VFT were determined during steady-state conditions 30 minutes before cardiopulmonary bypass. Early LV filling was attenuated in patients with AS (eg, E/A, 0.77±0.11 compared with 1.23±0.13; β, 0.43±0.09 compared with 0.35±0.02; p<0.05 for each). LV hypertrophy was observed (PWT, 1.4±0.1 cm compared with 1.1±0.2 cm; p<0.05) and VFT was lower (3.0±0.9 v 4.3±0.5; p<0.05) in patients with versus without AS. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between VFT and PWT (VFT = -2.57 ×PWT + 6.81; r(2) = 0.345; p = 0.017).

CONCLUSION: The results indicated that pressure-overload hypertrophy produced by AS reduced VFT in patients with normal LV systolic function undergoing aortic valve replacement.

Author List

Pagel PS, Hudetz JA


Paul S. Pagel MD, PhD Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Anesthesia, General
Aortic Valve
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Blood Flow Velocity
Blood Pressure
Conscious Sedation
Coronary Artery Bypass
Echocardiography, Transesophageal
Heart Rate
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Middle Aged
Preanesthetic Medication
Stroke Volume
Ventricular Function, Left
jenkins-FCD Prod-387 b0ced2662056320369de4e5cd5f21c218c03feb3