Medical College of Wisconsin
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Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption: relationship to blood lipids and lipoproteins in premenopausal females. Metabolism 1984 Jul;33(7):585-90 PMID: 6738359

Pubmed ID



A total of 164 premenopausal female subjects were randomly selected for evaluation from a much larger pool of volunteers. The relationships between blood lipid and lipoprotein levels as dependent variables and cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined from partial regression coefficients. A lower HDL-C level (10.1 mg/dL) was seen in smokers v nonsmokers. For each ounce of alcohol consumed, HDL-C level was higher by 2.8 mg/dL, and greater physical activity was associated with a higher HDL-C level of 8.6 mg/dL. An analysis of covariance with covariance adjustments for age and body fat revealed that smokers who regularly exercise or consume alcohol had significantly lower HDL-C levels than nonsmokers with similar habits. Subjects who both exercise and consume alcohol demonstrated higher HDL-C levels than those who indulge in one or the other separately. Results suggest that cigarette smoking may attenuate the effects of chronic exercise or alcohol consumption, or of both, to raise HDL-C levels. Also, chronic exercise and alcohol consumption may exert an additive effect, raising HDL-C level.

Author List

Stamford BA, Matter S, Fell RD, Sady S, Cresanta MK, Papanek P


Paula Papanek PhD, MPT, LAT, FACSM Associate Professor & Director of Exercise Science in the Exercise Science & Physical Therapy department at Marquette University


2-s2.0-0021173652   36 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking
Physical Exertion
Physical Fitness
jenkins-FCD Prod-332 f92a19b0ec5e8e1eff783fac390ec127e367c2b5