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Surgical site infections after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions. Ann Vasc Surg 2014 Jan;28(1):53-8

Date

11/06/2013

Pubmed ID

24189008

DOI

10.1016/j.avsg.2013.08.002

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84890565178   32 Citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: We sought to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, and factors associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions and determine outcomes based on SSI status.

METHODS: This is a single-institution, retrospective cohort study of 106 patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization procedures involving femoral artery exposure through a groin incision at a tertiary referral hospital. The primary outcome was occurrence of SSI at the groin wound. The duration of hospital stay, reoperation within 30 days, discharge disposition, and 30-day mortality were also evaluated. Independent variables included patient demographics and operative variables (i.e., procedure type, transfusion requirements, preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative vasopressors, and operative duration). Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable regression analysis.

RESULTS: Of the 106 patients who underwent a lower extremity revascularization procedure with a groin incision for femoral artery exposure, 62% were male, and the mean age was 62 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (93%), dyslipidemia (65%), statin use (63%), active smoker (50%), diabetes (24%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics, 50% required intraoperative pressors, 21% received a blood transfusion, and the mean operative time was 296 min. The overall duration of stay was 10.7 days, the 30-day reoperation rate was 18%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 12%. Overall, 22% developed a seroma or hematoma, and 31% developed a SSI. Patients who developed an SSI compared with those who did not were more likely to have a postoperative seroma or hematoma (55% vs 5%) and to receive a blood transfusion (33% vs 15%), but less likely to be treated with a statin (47% vs 69%) or carry a diagnosis of dyslipidemia (50% vs 72%), respectively, all P < 0.05. Patients with an SSI had a longer duration of stay (14.5 vs 8.7 days) and a higher reoperative rate (49% vs 4%), but had a lower 30-day mortality (0% vs 18%) than those who did not develop an SSI (all P < 0.05). On multivariable regression analysis adjusting for differences in patient and operative variables, the occurrence of a wound seroma or hematoma remained an independent predictor for SSI (odd ratio: 27.6; 95% confidence interval: 5.4-139.6).

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of postoperative surgical site complications after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving a groin incision was 31% and was significantly associated with blood transfusion, postoperative seroma or hematoma, dyslipidemia, and statin usage. After adjusting for differences in patient and operative variables, postoperative seroma or hematoma was an independent predictor of SSI. Patients with a SSI have a longer duration of hospitalization and higher reoperative rate. Additional prospective cohort studies are warranted to delineate ways to decrease the rate of SSI.

Author List

Kuy S, Dua A, Desai S, Dua A, Patel B, Tondravi N, Seabrook GR, Brown KR, Lewis BD, Lee CJ, Kuy S, Subbarayan R, Rossi PJ

Authors

Kellie R. Brown MD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Brian D. Lewis MD Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Peter J. Rossi MD Chief, Associate Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Gary R. Seabrook MD Chief, Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Chi-Square Distribution
Comorbidity
Endovascular Procedures
Female
Femoral Artery
Humans
Incidence
Length of Stay
Lower Extremity
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Punctures
Reoperation
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Surgical Wound Infection
Tertiary Care Centers
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Vascular Surgical Procedures
jenkins-FCD Prod-398 336d56a365602aa89dcc112f077233607d6a5abc