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Hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index is predictive of survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Mar;20(3):402-408.e1 PMID: 24342394 PMCID: PMC3961011

Pubmed ID





Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) but is associated with morbidity and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was shown to predict risk of NRM and survival after allogeneic transplantation. We tested the utility of HCT-CI as a predictor of NRM and survival in patients with MM undergoing AHCT. We analyzed outcomes of 1156 patients of AHCT after high-dose melphalan reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Individual comorbidities were prospectively collected at the time of AHCT. The impact of HCT-CI and other potential prognostic factors, including Karnofsky performance score (KPS), on NRM and survival were studied in multivariate Cox regression models. HCT-CI score was 0, 1, 2, 3, and >3 in 42%, 18%, 13%, 13%, and 14% of the study cohort, respectively. Subjects were stratified into 3 risk groups: HCT-CI score of 0 (42%) versus HCT-CI score of 1 to 2 (32%) versus HCT-CI score > 2 (26%). Higher HCT-CI was associated with lower KPS < 90 (33% of subjects score of 0 versus 50% in HCT-CI score > 2). HCT-CI score > 2 was associated with melphalan dose reduction (22% versus 10% in score 0 cohort). One-year NRM was low at 2% (95% confidence interval, 1% to 4%) and did not correlate with HCT-CI score (P = .9). On multivariate analysis, overall survival was inferior in groups with HCT-CI score of 1 to 2 (relative risk, 1.37, [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.87], P = .04) and HCT-CI score > 2 (relative risk, 1.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 2.08], P = .01). Overall survival was also inferior with KPS < 90 (P < .001), IgA subtype (P ≤ .001), those receiving >1 pretransplant induction regimen (P = .007), and those with resistant disease at the time of AHCT (P < .001). AHCT for MM is associated with low NRM, and death is predominantly related to disease progression. Although a higher HCT-CI score did not predict NRM, it was associated with inferior survival.

Author List

Saad A, Mahindra A, Zhang MJ, Zhong X, Costa LJ, Dispenzieri A, Drobyski WR, Freytes CO, Gale RP, Gasparetto CJ, Holmberg LA, Kamble RT, Krishnan AY, Kyle RA, Marks D, Nishihori T, Pasquini MC, Ramanathan M, Lonial S, Savani BN, Saber W, Sharma M, Sorror ML, Wirk BM, Hari PN


William R. Drobyski MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Parameswaran Hari MD Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Marcelo C. Pasquini MD, MS Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Wael Saber MD, MS Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mei-Jie Zhang PhD Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin


2-s2.0-84896811241   34 Citations

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Aged, 80 and over
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Middle Aged
Multiple Myeloma
Multivariate Analysis
Myeloablative Agonists
Severity of Illness Index
Survival Analysis
Transplantation Conditioning
Transplantation, Autologous
jenkins-FCD Prod-321 98992d628744e349846c2f62ac68f241d7e1ea70