Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

Rates and patterns of recurrence after curative intent resection for gallbladder cancer: a multi-institution analysis from the US Extra-hepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. HPB (Oxford) 2016 11;18(11):872-878



Pubmed ID


Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-84992732370   12 Citations


BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare malignancy. The current study aimed to define the incidence and patterns of recurrence following gallbladder cancer resection.

METHODS: Using a multi-institutional cohort we identified 217 patient undergoing curative intent surgery for gallbladder cancer. Patterns of recurrence were classified as locoregional and distant recurrence.

RESULTS: At last follow-up, 76 patients (35.0%) had experienced a recurrence (locoregional only, n = 12, 15.8%; distant only, n = 50, 65.8%; locoregional and distant, n = 14, 18.4%). Median time to recurrence was 9.5 months (IQR 4.7-17.6) and was not associated with recurrence site (all p > 0.05). On multivariable analysis, T3 disease (HR = 8.44, p = 0.014), lymphovascular invasion (HR = 4.24, p < 0.001) and residual disease (HR = 2.04, p = 0.042) were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Patients who recurred demonstrated a worse 1-, 3- and 5-year OS (1-year OS: 91.3% vs. 68.6%, p = 0.001, 3-year OS: 79.3% vs. 28.7%, p < 0.001, and 5-year OS: 75.9% vs. 16.0%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for other risk factors, recurrence was independently associated with a decreased OS (HR = 3.71, p = 0.006). Of note, receipt of adjuvant therapy was associated with improved OS (HR = 0.56, p = 0.027) among those patients who developed a tumor recurrence.

DISCUSSION: Over one-third of patients experienced a recurrence after gallbladder cancer surgery. While chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of recurrence, patients who experienced recurrence after administration of adjuvant treatment faired better than patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy.

Author List

Margonis GA, Gani F, Buettner S, Amini N, Sasaki K, Andreatos N, Ethun CG, Poultsides G, Tran T, Idrees K, Isom CA, Fields RC, Krasnick B, Weber SM, Salem A, Martin RC, Scoggins C, Shen P, Mogal HD, Schmidt C, Beal E, Hatzaras I, Shenoy R, Maithel SK, Pawlik TM


Harveshp Mogal MD Assistant Professor in the Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
Chi-Square Distribution
Disease-Free Survival
Gallbladder Neoplasms
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Lymphatic Metastasis
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Neoadjuvant Therapy
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Neoplasm, Residual
Proportional Hazards Models
Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
United States
jenkins-FCD Prod-398 336d56a365602aa89dcc112f077233607d6a5abc