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Polyparaneoplastic Manifestations of Malignant Thymoma: A Unique Case of Myasthenia, Autoimmune Hepatitis, Pure Red Cell Aplasia, and Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca. Cureus 2017 Jun 20;9(6):e1374 PMID: 28744421 PMCID: PMC5519314


Thymomas are relatively uncommon malignancies of the anterior mediastinum and present with four distinct histological types based on the specific epithelial to lymphocyte ratio: spindle cell, epithelial predominant, lymphocyte predominant, or mixed. Each histologic type of thymoma has a propensity for local invasion and metastasis and can have a wide variety of paraneoplastic manifestations, myasthenia being the most common. We present a unique case of a 34-year-old African-American female who initially presented with a history of profound weakness with repetitive motion, shortness of breath, horizontal nystagmus, persistent anemia, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, and what was initially thought to be azithromycin-induced hepatitis. Upon left anterior thoracotomy with biopsy of the mediastinal mass, pathology yielded a lymphocyte-predominant (B1), Masaoka stage IVA invasive thymoma with pericardial extension. This case illustrates the clinical significance of considering a multitude of extrathymic paraneoplastic manifestations, each with a unique physiological mechanism.

Author List

Feinsilber D, Mears KA, Pettiford BL


Doron Feinsilber MD Instructor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

View this publication's entry at the Pubmed website PMID: 28744421
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