Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

Advanced Age Attenuates Left Ventricular Filling Efficiency Quantified Using Vortex Formation Time: A Study of Octogenarians With Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function Undergoing Coronary Artery Surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2018 08;32(4):1775-1779



Pubmed ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85042941834   1 Citation


OBJECTIVE: Blood flow across the mitral valve during early left ventricular (LV) filling produces a 3-dimensional rotational fluid body, known as a vortex ring, that enhances LV filling efficiency. Diastolic dysfunction is common in elderly patients, but the influence of advanced age on vortex formation is unknown. The authors tested the hypothesis that advanced age is associated with a reduction in LV filling efficiency quantified using vortex formation time (VFT) in octogenarians undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

DESIGN: Observational study.

SETTING: Veterans Affairs medical center.

PARTICIPANTS: After institutional review board approval, octogenarians (n = 7; 82 ± 2 year [mean ± standard deviation]; ejection fraction 56% ± 7%) without valve disease or atrial arrhythmias undergoing CABG were compared with a younger cohort (n = 7; 55 ± 6 year; ejection fraction 57% ± 7%) who were undergoing coronary revascularization.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All patients were monitored using radial and pulmonary arterial catheters and transesophageal echocardiography. Peak early LV filling (E) and atrial systole (A) blood flow velocities and their corresponding velocity-time integrals were obtained using pulse-wave Doppler echocardiography to determine E/A, atrial filling fraction (β), and E wave deceleration time. Pulse-wave Doppler also was used to measure pulmonary venous blood flow during systole and diastole. Mitral valve diameter (D) was calculated as the average of major and minor axis lengths obtained in the midesophageal LV bicommissural and long-axis transesophageal echocardiography imaging planes, respectively. VFT was calculated as 4 × (1 - β) × SV/(πD), where SV is the stroke volume measured using thermodilution. Systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, LV diastolic function, and VFT were determined during steady-state conditions 30 minutes before cardiopulmonary bypass. A delayed relaxation pattern of LV filling (E/A 0.81 ± 0.16 v 1.29 ± 0.19, p = 0.00015; β 0.44 ± 0.05 v 0.35 ± 0.03, p = 0.0008; E wave deceleration time 294 ± 58 v 166 ± 28 ms, p < 0.0001; ratio of peak pulmonary venous systolic and diastolic blood flow velocity 1.42 ± 0.23 v 1.14 ± 0.20, p = 0.0255) was observed in octogenarians compared with younger patients. Mitral valve diameter was similar between groups (2.7 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.2 cm, respectively, in octogenarians v younger patients, p = 0.299). VFT was reduced in octogenarians compared with younger patients (3.0 ± 0.9 v 4.5 ± 1.2; p = 0.0171). An inverse correlation between age and VFT was shown using linear regression analysis (VFT = -0.0627 × age + 8.24; r = 0.408; p = 0.0139).

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that LV filling efficiency quantified using VFT is reduced in octogenarians compared with younger patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

Author List

Pagel PS, Dye L 3rd, Boettcher BT, Freed JK


Brent Boettcher DO Assistant Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Julie K. Freed MD, PhD Assistant Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Paul S. Pagel MD, PhD Professor in the Anesthesiology department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Age Factors
Aged, 80 and over
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
Cohort Studies
Coronary Artery Disease
Echocardiography, Doppler
Echocardiography, Transesophageal
Middle Aged
Ventricular Function, Left
jenkins-FCD Prod-387 b0ced2662056320369de4e5cd5f21c218c03feb3