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Peripheral Blood Grafts for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation Increase the Incidence and Severity of Cytokine Release Syndrome. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Aug;24(8):1664-1670 PMID: 29680516

Pubmed ID

29680516

Abstract

T cell-replete post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based protocols have led to increasing use of haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (haploHCT). With this approach, bidirectional alloreactivity causing nonengraftment or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is no a longer major barrier to haploHCT. PTCy eliminates alloreactive lymphocytes but spares CD34 stem cells and regulatory T lymphocytes, resulting in reliable hematopoietic recovery with relatively low incidence of GVHD. The immediate post-haploHCT course, usually before PTCy administration, is often complicated by cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The predictors of CRS and its effect on outcomes post-transplant have not been fully ascertained. We analyzed the outcomes of 66 patients who received haploHCT at our institution. Using published CRS criteria we identified 48 patients who developed CRS. In multivariate analysis peripheral blood grafts were significantly associated with grade ≥ 2 CRS, compared with bone marrow. Grade ≥ 2 CRS (compared with grade < 2) was not associated with differences in overall survival or nonrelapse mortality. Severe CRS was associated with a statistically nonsignificant trend toward higher incidences of grades III to IV acute GVHD, especially in the context of peripheral blood grafts. CRS is a common complication after T cell-replete peripheral blood haploHCT, but post-transplant survival outcomes may not be affected in those with severe CRS.

Author List

Raj RV, Hamadani M, Szabo A, Pasquini MC, Shah NN, Drobyski WR, Shaw BE, Saber W, Rizzo JD, Jerkins J, Fenske TS, D'Souza A, Dhakal B, Zhang C, Konings S, Hari PN, Chhabra S

Authors

Saurabh Chhabra MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Anita D'Souza MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Binod Dhakal MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
William R. Drobyski MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Timothy Fenske MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mehdi H. Hamadani MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Parameswaran Hari MD Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Marcelo C. Pasquini MD, MS Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
J. Douglas D. Rizzo MD, MS Director, Ctr Associate Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Wael Saber MD, MS Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Nirav N. Shah MD Assistant Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Bronwen E. Shaw MBChB, PhD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Aniko Szabo PhD Associate Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin




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