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Hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: conditioning regimen intensity. Blood Adv 2018 08 28;2(16):2095-2103 PMID: 30135184 PMCID: PMC6113615

Pubmed ID





In this study, we sought to identify specific individual high-intensity or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens with the best relapse-free survival (RFS) rather than the global high- vs reduced-intensity regimen comparison. Patients (median age, 58 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 1258), who were in first or subsequent remission, or with MDS (n = 951) who had refractory anemia with unilineage or multilineage dysplasia, 5q- syndrome, or refractory anemia with excess blasts received nonirradiation-containing regimens and were transplanted between 2009 and 2014 in the United States. Three-year RFS with high-intensity busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu4/Cy; 44%) was comparable to conditioning with high-intensity fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu4; 44%), reduced-intensity fludarabine/melphalan (Flu/Mel; 52%; = .53), and Flu/Mel + anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG; 44%; = .38). RFS was lower with reduced-intensity Flu/Bu2 + ATG (31%; = .0006). RFS was also lower with high-intensity Flu/Bu4 + ATG (38%; = .05) and reduced-intensity Flu/Bu2 (38%; = .02), although the difference did not reach the level of significance set for these analysis. RFS with Flu/Mel was superior to RFS with Flu/Bu2 ( = .01) and Flu/Bu2 + ATG ( = .0006). The 3-year incidence of relapse was 22% with Flu/Mel compared with 46% with Flu/Bu2 and 56% with Flu/Bu2 + ATG. With only a modest reduction in nonrelapse mortality with the Flu/Bu2 regimens, the higher relapse incidence resulted in lower RFS. The data support optimal RFS with Bu4/Cy, Flu/Bu4, and Flu/Mel regimens for AML in remission or MDS. The low relapse rate with reduced-intensity Flu/Mel resulted in RFS comparable to that after the higher-intensity regimens.

Author List

Eapen M, Brazauskas R, Hemmer M, Perez WS, Steinert P, Horowitz MM, Deeg HJ


Ruta Brazauskas PhD Associate Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mary Eapen MBBS, DCh, MRCPI, MS Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mary M. Horowitz MD, MS Center Director, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Follow-Up Studies
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Middle Aged
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Transplantation Conditioning
jenkins-FCD Prod-331 a335b1a6d1e9c32173c9534e6f6ff51494143916