Medical College of Wisconsin
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Voiding cystography practices and preferences of North American pediatric urologists. J Urol 2009 Jul;182(1):299-304; discussion 304-5



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PURPOSE: Little consensus exists regarding the choice of a specific modality of voiding cystography in the evaluation and management of vesicoureteral reflux. We hypothesized that choices of pediatric urologists are based on technical factors of the studies themselves, as well as institutional factors unique to their hospital(s). Therefore, we surveyed pediatric urologists to determine their current practices and preferences of modalities of voiding cystography.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We mailed an anonymous survey of 40 questions to all fellows of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Urology.

RESULTS: Surveys were returned from 186 of 301 fellows (62%). Of the respondents 57% were in academic, 30% in private and 13% in mixed practices. Given a choice of fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography, radionuclide cystography and voiding ultrasonography, fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography was preferred by 98% and 96% of respondents for initial evaluation of urinary tract infection in males and females, respectively, 96% for assessment of prenatal hydronephrosis, 54% for followup of vesicoureteral reflux, 59% for screening siblings, and 63% and 66%, respectively, after open and endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Voiding ultrasonography was preferred by less than 10% of respondents in all groups, and radionuclide cystography was preferred by the remainder. Voiding images of the urethra, child-friendliness of staff, sensitivity and accuracy were factors most important in choosing a test. Of the respondents 83% reported full-time access to pediatric radiologists at their primary hospital, although a minority had full-time access to pediatric radiologists at additional institutions. Sedation was used in some or most cases by 29%, rarely by 56% and never by 15% of respondents.

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric urologists prefer fluoroscopic voiding cystography in all situations to evaluate vesicoureteral reflux but the proportion varies by indication. Diagnostic and patient issues are of greater concern than radiation dose. Variability in access to pediatric radiologists and ability to obtain the desired study may also alter ordering practices.

Author List

Ellison JS, Maxfield CM, Wiener JS


Jonathan Scott Ellison MD Assistant Professor in the Urologic Surgery department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Attitude of Health Personnel
Child, Preschool
Diagnostic Imaging
Health Care Surveys
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Practice Patterns, Physicians'
Quality of Health Care
Sensitivity and Specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Societies, Medical
Surveys and Questionnaires
Ultrasonography, Doppler
United States
Urinary Bladder
Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
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