Medical College of Wisconsin
CTSICores SearchResearch InformaticsREDCap

A Phase 2 Study of Pembrolizumab during Lymphodepletion after Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 08;25(8):1492-1497

Date

04/09/2019

Pubmed ID

30959163

DOI

10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.005

Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85065451525   5 Citations

Abstract

The programmed death-1 (PD-1) axis can suppress immune surveillance against multiple myeloma (MM). We tested the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, in MM after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). We enrolled patients with MM who did not achieve a complete response (CR) to induction therapy. The study intervention involved a total of 9 doses of i.v. pembrolizumab, with 1 dose given every 21 days starting on day +14 post-AHCT. The primary endpoint was the rate of CR at end of treatment (EOT) in patients receiving ≥2 pembrolizumab doses. Thirty-two patients were enrolled, but 3 withdrew consent before receiving the first dose. The study was terminated early after failing to meet its interim analysis endpoint to detect a 20% difference in EOT CR rate conversion. The median patient age was 59 years. All but 1 patient received triplet induction for a median of 4 cycles (range, 2 to 7 cycles), with 69% partial response (PR) and 31% very good PR (VGPR). No grade 4/5 toxicities or graft failures occurred. Among 26 evaluable patients, 23 had an EOT evaluation, and 7 of these 23 (31%) achieved CR. Two patients had EOT serologic CR but no bone marrow confirmation (CRu), and 1 patient had no EOT evaluation. Bone marrow was minimal residual disease-negative by flow cytometry in 12 of 16 patients (75%) at day +180. With a median follow-up of 23.7 months (range, 15.1 to 33.5 months), no patient achieving EOT CR/CRu had relapsed, whereas 3 patients progressed before EOT and 1 patient progressed at 8 months after EOT VGPR. The estimated 2-year progression-free rate was 83% (95% confidence interval, 68% to 100%). Our data show that early post-AHCT pembrolizumab with lenalidomide maintenance is feasible; however, the efficacy is uncertain and requires further study. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02331368).

Author List

D'Souza A, Hari P, Pasquini M, Braun T, Johnson B, Lundy S, Couriel D, Hamadani M, Magenau J, Dhakal B, Shah NN, Riwes M, Parkin B, Reddy P, Pawarode A

Authors

Anita D'Souza MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Binod Dhakal MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Mehdi H. Hamadani MD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Parameswaran Hari MD Chief, Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Bryon D. Johnson PhD Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Marcelo C. Pasquini MD, MS Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Nirav N. Shah MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin




MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Autografts
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Humans
Lymphocyte Depletion
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Myeloma
Remission Induction
Time Factors
jenkins-FCD Prod-482 91ad8a360b6da540234915ea01ff80e38bfdb40a