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Hematopoietic cell transplantation utilization and outcomes for primary plasma cell leukemia in the current era. Leukemia 2020 12;34(12):3338-3347



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Pubmed Central ID




Scopus ID

2-s2.0-85083712292   9 Citations


The outcomes of patients with primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) after undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the novel agent era are unknown. We report outcomes of 348 patients with pPCL receiving autologous (auto-) HCT (n = 277) and allogeneic (allo-) HCT (n = 71) between 2008 and 2015. Median age was 60 years and 56 years for auto- and allo-HCT respectively. For auto-HCT, the 4-year outcomes were: non-relapse mortality (NRM) 7% (4-11%), relapse (REL) 76% (69-82%), progression-free survival (PFS) 17% (13-23%), and overall survival (OS) 28% (22-35%). Karnofsky performance status (KPS) > 90 and ≥very good partial response (VGPR) predicted superior OS in multi-variate analysis for auto-HCT. For allo-HCT, the 4-year outcomes were: NRM 12% (5-21%), REL 69% (56-81%), PFS 19% (10-31%), and OS 31% (19-44%). Compared with prior CIBMTR pPCL patients (1995-2006), inferior survival was noted in the current cohort (3-year OS, 39% vs. 38% in allo-HCT, and 62% vs. 35% in auto-HCT) respectively. However, we noted an increased HCT utilization, from 12% (7-21%) in 1995 to 46% (34-64%) in 2009 using SEER data (available till 2009). Despite modern induction translating to higher proportion receiving HCT, the outcomes remain poor in pPCL patients, mainly derived by high relapse rates post-HCT.

Author List

Dhakal B, Patel S, Girnius S, Bachegowda L, Fraser R, Davila O, Kanate AS, Assal A, Hanbali A, Bashey A, Pawarode A, Freytes CO, Lee C, Vesole D, Cornell RF, Hildebrandt GC, Murthy HS, Lazarus HM, Cerny J, Yared JA, Schriber J, Berdeja J, Stockerl-Goldstein K, Meehan K, Holmberg L, Solh M, Diaz MA, Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Farhadfar N, Bashir Q, Munker R, Olsson RF, Gale RP, Bayer RL, Seo S, Chhabra S, Hashmi S, Badawy SM, Nishihori T, Gonsalves W, Nieto Y, Efebera Y, Kumar S, Shah N, Qazilbash M, Hari P, D'Souza A


Saurabh Chhabra MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Anita D'Souza MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Binod Dhakal MD Associate Professor in the Medicine department at Medical College of Wisconsin
Raphael Fraser PhD Assistant Professor in the Institute for Health and Equity department at Medical College of Wisconsin

MESH terms used to index this publication - Major topics in bold

Cohort Studies
Graft vs Host Disease
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Leukemia, Plasma Cell
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Transplantation Conditioning
Transplantation, Autologous
Transplantation, Homologous